• Created by: Amy.L.J
  • Created on: 24-09-18 13:47
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  • Smoking
    • tobacco smoke
      • 4000 different chemicals, 'sidestream' smoke contains more chemicals than 'mainstream' smoke. breathing in someones smoke is passive smoking.
      • tar
        • contains carciogenes that react with the DNA of epithelium cells and cause mutations
        • as lung cancer developes it spreads through the bronchiole and enters lymphatic systems
        • lung cancer takes 20-30 years to develop
      • Nicotine
        • is the drug in tobacco, releases adrenaline, heart rate and blood pressure increase,
        • increases risk of blood clotting, stimulatess release of dopamine
      • carbon monoxide
        • forms carboxyhaemoglobin
        • strains the heart, damages arteries, build up of fatty tissue-reduces blood flow, CHD and stroke may follow.
    • lung diseases
      • chronic bronchitis
        • tar stimulates goblet cells to over secrete mucus, it also inhibits cilias wafting action
        • mucus builds up in the bronchioles and become obstructed, bacteria and viruses collect here
        • 'smokers cough' tries to clear airways, damaged cells become scar tissue and smooth muscle becomes thicker
        • thickening makes it harder to breath, pneumonia develops in mucus, lining becomes inflamed
        • the obstruction leads to bronchitis and phlegm
      • Emphysema
        • the constant inflammation causes phagocytes to leave the blood and enter the airways
        • the phagocytes line the airways and release elastase which breaks down elastin
        • less elastin means alveoli cant stretch and recoil, bronchioles collapse, reduces surface area


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