effects of smoking

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  • Created by: vezting
  • Created on: 03-04-16 16:54
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  • Smoking
    • damage to cardiovascular system
      • atheroclerosis
        • hardening of arteries dur to athermos
        • atheromas contain LDL
        • atheromas begin when there is damage to artery wall allowing LDL to enter and collectin thw wall
        • build up of LDL initiates and immune response and white blood cells build up
        • over time white blood cells, lipids and connective tissue harden to form plaques- atheromas
        • nicotene and carbon monoxide increase blood pressure, damaging the arter wall, leading to atheromas
      • CDH
        • CDH is when the arteries that supply the heart with blood have lots of atheromas, reducing blood, reducing oxygen
        • lack of oxygen causes pain (angina) or a heart attack
        • carbon monoxide irreversibly combines with haemoglobin reducing available oxygen to body and heart
        • nicotene makes platelets sticky increasing chnace of blood clots, this could happen in conorary arteries
        • stents can be use to treat CHD by widening arteries and increasing blood flow
      • stroke
        • caused by clot in artery supplying brain to blood. therfore oxygen cannot enter brain
        • smoking increases chances by the same reasoning as CHD
    • damage to gas exchange system
      • lung cancer
        • cigarette smoke contain carcinogens
        • carcinogens cause mutations in the DNA whoich can cause uncontrolled growth and tumors
        • maloignant  tumors continue to grow, blocking air flow areas to lungs, so leads to shortness of breath due to lack of oxygen
        • tumors use lots of nutrients and therfore cause weight loss
      • chronic bronchitis
        • long-term inflamation of the mucous membrane lining the bronchi
        • tar in cigarette smoke causes damage to cillia and causes goblet cells to secrete too much mucus
        • mucus accumilates in the lungs which causes increase to coughing
        • microorganisms multiply in the mucus increasing infections
        • this leads to inflamation which comprimises gas exchange
      • emphysema
        • chronic lung disease involving break down of alveoili
        • tar causes a build up of mucus, which attracts phagocytes and they secrete enzymes which break down the protein elastin
        • the loss of elastin and alveoli mean the cant recoil to expel air. it remains trapped, breaking down the walls, reducing surface area
        • COPD
          • chronic bronchitis
            • long-term inflamation of the mucous membrane lining the bronchi
            • tar in cigarette smoke causes damage to cillia and causes goblet cells to secrete too much mucus
            • mucus accumilates in the lungs which causes increase to coughing
            • microorganisms multiply in the mucus increasing infections
            • this leads to inflamation which comprimises gas exchange
        • this reduces oxygen flow to body and so person feels fatigued

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