Smog in Indonesia 1997-1998

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  • Created by: vezting
  • Created on: 03-04-16 17:49
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  • smog in indonesia 1997-98
    • causes
      • covered an erea larger than western Europe
      • 70 million people affected
      • burning (often illegally) forests and plantations to clear the land cheaply and easily often organises by TNCs
      • El nino effect led to drought which dried up the forests
      • high pressure so inversion layer trapped smog
      • late arrival of monsoon so no rain to put out fires and clear air
      • weak and corrupt local government made it difficult to enforce anti-burning laws
      • lack of alternative fuels for the poor
    • impacts
      • short term
        • 60,000 treated for smog-related illnesses and eye problems
        • airliner crashed killing 234 people led to flights being diverted and cancelled
        • ships re-routed to avoid straits of malacca
        • schools closed
        • loss of tourism
      • long term
        • over 275 people died from starvation
        • deaths from cholera due to lack of clean water
        • crop yields fell and many areas had to import food
        • added to global warming and reduced carbon dioxide-absorbing vegetation
        • loss of biodiversity- species wiped out and food chains distrupted
        • peat may burn for 20 years so seeds cant germinate
    • responses
      • fires put out using cloud seeding, water bombs from USA and fire fighters from Australia
      • stop fires being lit  the companies that started fires found guilty and operating liscenses revoked
      • developed industries other than timber and tree crops (palm oil particuarly)
      • international cooperation, in 2000 ASEAN adopted zero burning policy to solve the problem


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