Disorders of sleep

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  • Sleepwalking
    • Most common in childhood, affecting 20% of children. Person wakes during SWS but brain arousal incomplete
    • Psychodynamictheory of sleep: desire to sleep where we slept as a child, instinctual energies expressed during dreams - spill out over into NREM and produce motor activity, not testible - would largely involve self report and reflective opinion i.e. not scientific methodology
    • Genetic theory of sleep: 10 times more likely if 1st degree relative suffers, studies show a gene present in sleepwalkers that is not as common in non sleepwalkers (HLA gene), gene produces proteins involved in immune system, thought environment can also be responsible
      • Zadra et al: 40 patients (suspected sleepwalkers) - 15 had reported injuries during sleepwalking, observed during sleep and sleepwalking, normal night sleep = 50% signs of sleepwalking and after sleep deprivation = 90% sleep walking
        • This suggests that sleep deprivation does not lead to sleep walking in normal individuals and therefore appears to be a characteristic of individuals who are genetically predisposed to sleepwalking
        • Evaluation of Zadra et al: high control = low ecological validity and lack of external variables, small sample size, biological determinism = people commit crimes and Diathesis Stress model
    • Olivero found during normal sleep GABA produced and inhibits motor activity, in children this immature system is not fully controlling motor activity during sleep
    • 15% concordance in DZ and 50% concordance in MZ


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