Sleep stages

Stages of sleep and lifespan changes in sleep

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  • Created by: ava.scott
  • Created on: 04-05-15 17:07
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  • Sleep States
    • AO1
      • 5 stages
        • STAGE 1
          • alpha wave
          • hypergogic state
        • STAGE 2
          • Large slow theta waves
        • STAGE 3
          • Long slow delta waves
          • sleep spindles
        • STAGE 4
          • just long slow delta waves
        • STAGE 5 (REM)
          • Rapid eye movement
          • fast and unsynchronised waves
    • IDA
      • Determinist
        • Everybody needs the sleep stages, and just go through them to get to REM.
        • We have no control over the sleep stages.
        • Good because
          • we can make predictions about sleep, and also what happens if you miss certain stages.
            • allows diagnosis
          • easier to test as not affected by demand characteristics
    • SLEEP STAGES
      • LIFESPAN CHANGES IN SLEEP
        • AO1
          • Premature babies
            • 90% time spent in REM
          • Babies
            • 80% of time spent in REM
            • Sleep 16hours a day and wake up every hour or so
            • sws= quiet sleep REM= active sleep
            • circadian rhythm established by 12 months.
          • Children
            • Sleep cycle lengthens to 90 minutes
            • sleep on average 10 hours a day
            • Parasomniacs and night terrors are common.
            • 25% time spent in REM
          • Adolescents
            • 20% time spent in REM
            • 9-10 hours a day
            • more nocturnal
            • often associated with eejaaculations
          • Adults
            • 25% time spent in REM
            • 8 hours slept a day on average
            • sleep cycle is 90-120 minutes
            • insomnia more likely
          • Older adults
            • Rapid decrease in stage 4 sleep and REM
            • more napping and experience phase advance
        • IDA
          • Deterministic
            • All people will experience these changes in sleep as they get older.
            • Ignore individual differences- some old people may not experience phase advance.
        • Research
          • Breedlov e
            • Suggested that babies have a lot of REM sleep because they are organizing their brain and processing new information
            • This would explain why older adults don't need REM, as they already have an organised perception of the world.
          • Wolfson and Carskadon
            • 3000 american high school students
            • slept on average 8.3 hours, and 1/4 slept 7 hours or less.
            • Those achieving A grades went to bed earlier and slept for longer.
            • Those with sleep disruptances has lower grades.
          • Monkseaton High school
            • 300 students
            • started school at 10 am
            • 8% lass absenteeism and 27% less persistent absenteeism.
          • Lufi et al
            • Isreali school started an hour later.
            • Students slept on average an hour longer.
          • Young dementia sufferers
            • Have very little stage 3/4 sleep.
              • suggesting they are vital for brain function, and aren;t passive parts of sleep.
          • Ancoli-Isreali
            • Suggested that the poor sleep found in older adults is actually a side effect of illness and medication.
              • highlights how difficult it is to study sleep, when social influences are very closely entwined.
    • RESEARCH
      • Sharpio
        • Studied ultra marathon runners (57 miles)
        • Found tehy slept 1.5 hours longer after the event
        • Lots more SWS (4) sleep
        • When disrupted stage 4 sleep, this lead to back and muscle pain.
      • Borberly
        • Found that when people were deprived of REM, they made 31 attempts to reenter REM, then 51 then more than 60.
        • Suggests that REM is  a separate phenomenon to the rest of sleep, as a special effort is made to attain it.
          • However, also suggests that the sleep states are more malleable.
    • Research evaluation
      • High empirical method- EEG's are limited in their interpretation.
      • Low population validity (Dement = 5 ppt, and Sharpio is just marathon runners)
      • Artificial settings-- maybe sleep varies when it is unmonitored.
    • WIDER EVALUATION
      • practical applications
        • illness could be due to sleep irregularity, and the stages would make diagnosis easier.
      • Individual differences aren't accounted for, despite being widely recorded. makes the theory less generalisable and less predictably valid.

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