SLEEP DISORDERS

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  • Created by: Tierney
  • Created on: 11-12-12 12:06
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  • Classic symptoms of narcolepsy = loss of muscle tone ('cataplexy') ...this is similar to what happens during REM sleep.
    • During daytime, narcoleptics often experiance intrusions of REM-type sleep (hallucinations).
  • During daytime, narcoleptics often experiance intrusions of REM-type sleep (hallucinations).
  • HLA:- 1980's research suggested that narcolepsy was linked to a mutation of the immune system.
    • HONDA EL AT 1983:- found increased number of one type of HLA in narcopleptic patients.
  • Explanations supporting REM:-VOGEL 1960 :- observed REM sleep at the start of sleep in narcotic patients, whereas it more commonly occurs later in the first cycle of sleep stages.
    • further supported by SIEGEL 1999:- recorded neuron activity in the brainstem of narcoleptic dogs. This showed that cataplexy co-occured with brain cell activity that usually only occurs in REM sleep.
      • HOWEVER :- although there is evidence but it isn't strong enough to be convincing.
    • SLEEP DISORDER = Narcolepsy
      • Explanations..
        • Psychology explanations:- LEHRMAN & WEISS 1943 :- suggested that sudden attacks of sleepiness disguise sexual fantasies.
        • Classic symptoms of narcolepsy = loss of muscle tone ('cataplexy') ...this is similar to what happens during REM sleep.
    • HLA:- HLA variant cannot be only cause for narcolepsy. MIGNOT EL AT 1997 - Other reasons are... 1) the specific HLA variant is found most commonly in narcoleptics is not found in ALL. 2) Same HLA variant is also commonly found within the general pop.
      • SLEEP DISORDER = Narcolepsy
        • Explanations..
          • Psychology explanations:- LEHRMAN & WEISS 1943 :- suggested that sudden attacks of sleepiness disguise sexual fantasies.
    • 2) HYPO:-What causes low levels? Despite evidence in dogs, it appears low levels in humans is rarely due to a gene. DOESN'T APPEAR TO BE INHERITED. Evidence: narcolepsy doesn't run in families and as far as Twin studies; MIGNOT 1998 - found where one twin had disorder, other did not.
      • More likely due to brain injury, infection, diet, stress or result of am autoimmune attack.
    • More likely due to brain injury, infection, diet, stress or result of am autoimmune attack.
    • HYPO 3) Hypo's & HLA :- MIGNOT 2001 :- the autoimmune explanation could explain the involvement of HLA in narcolepsy. (Mutations of HLA may result in reduced numbers of hypocretin cells)
      • RWD:- low hypo levels = cause of narcolepsy. Q: Why not give patients a dose of hypo's???? A: given by mouth of injection, it is broken down before it reaches the brain. THEREFORE, researchers are trying to create an artificial drug to replace such missing hypos in brain.

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