Sleep disorders

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  • Created by: ava.scott
  • Created on: 06-05-15 16:31
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  • Sleep disorders
    • Narcolepsy
      • AO1
        • Hypocretin is the neurotransmitter that is thought to control wakefulness and arousal.
        • Hypocretin is only produced in 10,000-20,000 cells in the hypothalamus.
        • These cells can be destroyed by an immune response, causing no hypocretin to be produced.
          • can also be destroyed by flu vaccination.
          • This immune response occurs because of  HLA complex on chormosone 6.
        • People with narcolepsy therefore have vastly reduced amounts of hypocretin-producing cells.
      • Research
        • T E SCAMMEL
          • studied a man who suffered a hypothalamic stroke, destroying hypocretin producing cells.
            • he then suffered narcolepsy.
        • NISHINO
          • Found a link between low levels of hypocretin in cerebrospinal fluid and narcoleptic symptoms.
        • Broughton
          • Found that lifestyle changes (sleep schedules and relaxation) had a better effect on narcoleptic symptoms than drugs.
        • Mignot
          • Out of 16 pairs of twins, only 5 were concordant for narcolepsy.
      • When someone rapidly falls into a state of REM sleep.
      • IDA
        • reductionist
          • only considers the biological mechanism behind narcolepsy, even those research shows there are environmental causes.
          • prepcipating factors  that causes immune response.
          • makes theory less compelling as practical applications are narrower.
      • wider evaluation
        • practical applications
          • hypocretin is a very large molecule and difficult to get into the brain.
          • gene therapy has been considered, but is not developed.
        • highly empirical research
    • Sleepwalking
      • AO1
        • Diathesis- stress model
          • Diathesis refers to predisposing factors that are mainly biological.
            • genetic--adenosine deanimase gene.
              • linked to less release of GABA which suppresses motor activity in SWS.
            • immature neural circuits means kless control over motor activity,
              • this is why more children sleep walk.
      • RESEARCH
        • TWIN STUDIES
          • BAKWIN
            • 9/19 concordant in MZ.
            • 1/14 were for DZ twins.
          • HUBLIN
            • MZ: 0.55
            • DZ: 0.35
          • SELF REPORTED
            • 1045 MZ twins
            • 1899 DZ twins
            • concordance for MZ twins was 5x higher.
        • Zadra
          • found that after sleep deprivation, 90% of sleepwalkers sleepwalked whereas only 50% did with normal nights sleep.
        • OHAYON
          • 19,136 participants,
          • found depressed people were 3.5x more likely to suffer sleepwalking than normal.
        • Oliviero
          • found that adult sleep walkers had more immature neural circuits in their brain, using MRI scans.
      • Research evaluation
        • high population validity
          • a lot of participants have been used when investigating sleep walking, so it can be generalized.
        • Artifical- zadras study was in  sleep lab,.
          • could have provoked more or less sleep walking.
        • very high control in most studies. COMPELLING EVIDENCE for sw.
      • IDA
        • Biological approach
          • the theory has a biological basis as it meaures activity in SWS, and observes neural circuits.
          • However, still acknowledges environmental effects, and so this diathesis-0stress model is more compelling- realistic interaction.
      • wider evalutation
        • practical applications
          • GABA pills to increase control over motor ability
          • avoid alcohol to reduce SWS sleep
        • criminal acts
          • being able to identify the immature neural circuits or genetic test can identify 'sleep walking' as a suitable alibi.
    • INSOMNIA
      • AO1
        • Predisposing
          • genetic vulnerability e.g. mutation in Cul3 neural pathway protein.
        • Precipitating
          • these cause insomnia to first start,
          • e.g. travelling, missing a nights sleep, anxiety
          • Factors which disrupt the circadian rhythm
        • perpetuating
          • these cause insomnia to continue
            • key to chronic insomnia.
          • e.g worrying about getting to sleep
      • RESEARCH
        • Stavropoulos
          • 21000 fruit flies
          • those with the insomnia gene slept 1/3 of the amount of normal flies.
      • Research evaluation
        • ,many people investigated--giving high genralisability for all insomniacs.
          • actually still ethnocentric bias as different cultures may have different factors influencing insomnia.
        • causality
          • could it be that insomnia causes family/work/health problems, rather than the other way round?
        • fruit fliy research is not generalizable to humans as their nature of sleep may be very different.
      • IDA
        • biological approach
          • but still integrated approach, making diagnosis less determinsitic
            • giving more realistic approach and view of insomnia.
      • wider evaluation
        • practical applications
          • remove perpetuating and precipitating facors.
            • counselling and CBT
        • vague theory- doesn't describe the mechanism behind the gene, and how precipitating factors cause insomnia.

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