sleep - life span changes

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  • Sleep
    • lifespan changes of sleep
      • infancy
        • Babies sleep more - Tend to sleep 16h/day
          • Sleep cycle is shorter - Immature versions of SWS and REM – quiet and active
            • Half infants sleep is active REM
              • Infants in early month sleep through initial period of light sleep to get to deep - 20 minutes to get to deep
                • By 6 months rhythm is established
                  • One year – mainly sleeping at nights
                    • Deep sleep lengthens + reduction in amount of active REM
                      • Not known whether REM accompanied by dreaming because infants can’t provide reliable reports
        • adaptive mechanism babies sleep more parents can get on with chores in daytime so enhances survival
          • Night waking adaptive because babies have small stomachs need to be fed regularly
            • If not woken by cold or hunger so babies will die
              • Amount of active REM relative to immaturity of infants brain - REM linked to production of neurotransmitters and consolidation of memories
                • REM activity may present imagery to stimulate brain
      • childhood
        • Age five kids have EEG patterns like adults
          • Still sleeping more - 12h/day
            • More REM activity – 30% total sleep
              • Boys sleep more than girls
                • Not uncommon for kids to experience variety of parasomnias eg sleep walking
                  • Near end of kidhood need for sleep decreases
      • adolescence
        • Need for sleep increases slightly to 9/10h a night
          • Rhythms change - feel more awake at night and difficulty getting up (phase delay)
            • Distinguishing feature of REM in males – sometimes accompanied by ejaculations and orgasms
        • Linked to hormone production
          • Hormones primarily released at night, disturbed sleeping pattern
            • Delayed sleep phase syndrome – Crowley - Hormone changes upset the circadian clock
              • Wolfson and Carskadon – recommend schools begin later to accommodate poor morning attention span
      • adulthood and old age
        • 8h a night - 25% in REM
          • Childhood parasomnias now rare
            • Increasing frequency of other sleep disorders eg apnoea and insomnia
              • Older people have more difficulty going to sleep and wake up more frequently
                • REM decreases to 20%
                  • Amount of SWS is reduced considerably to 5%
                    • Experience phase advance
                      • Feel sleepier earlier in the evening and waking up earlier
        • adulthood
          • Mortality risk associated w/ too much sleep
            • Kripke et al – survey over 1m wo+men 6-7h sleep reduced mortality rates, 8h led to 15% increase, 10h led to 30% increase
              • Co-relational data so other intervening vars e.g. Illness may lead to increased sleep
        • old age
          • Physiological changes
            • Apnoea or any other medical illness
              • Deep sleep reduced so more easily awoken
                • Reduced prod of growth hormone (in SWS)
                  • Symptoms associated are lack of energy, low bone density – van Cauter et al
                    • Medicines to control
      • IDA - school later + no naps
      • cultural bias
        • Largely conducted with American and British samples
          • Assumes no cultural influences
            • Important factor: number of evenings spent outside home
      • IDA – Developmental approach
        • Lifespan approach important because recognizes sleep patterns aren’t consistent and change with age
          • Led to new understanding of effects of ageing

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