Situational factors and individual differences (dispositional factors) affecting independent behaviour

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  • Situational factors and individual differences (dispositional factors) affecting independent behaviour
    • Situational factors
      • Power of situation may overwhelm moral reasoning
    • Individual differences (dispositional factors)
      • refers to important differences between people that may affect the way we respond to or experience the world
      • This can include Gender, Intelligence, Personality and Mental Health
      • Moral reasoning
        • Kohlberg (1969) found people who use advanced moral reasoning are more likely to resist orders and be disobedient.
          • Other research has shown though there is no exact correspondence between moral reasoning + moral actions
      • Locus of control
        • Internal - believe what hapens to them is their own doing
          • Blass (1921) believes people with high internal locus of Control are more likely to resist pressures to obey
        • External - believe what happens to them is controlled by external factors which are out of their conrol
        • Schurz (1985) did a study based on Milgram's experiment.20 switches, 20 step continuum. Participants informed of damage. 80% pressed all 20.LOC not predictive.20% tended to take more responsibility
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      • Confidence
        • Influenced Perrin + Spencer's study
        • In original study, Asch discovered even those who lacked confidence displayed independent behaviour
          • 3 main categories of independent behavior: confidence, withdrawal (avoiding eye contact) and tension+ doubt
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      • Gender differences
        • Milgram reported self-reports of male + female participants showed females had higher levels of tension
        • Kilham +Mann  (Australia): obedience rate: Men: 40%, Women: 16%


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