Sino-Soviet Relations 1949-76

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  • Created on: 05-06-15 08:24
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  • Sino-Soviet Relations 1949-76
    • 1949-56
      • Mao and Stalin
        • Mao respected Stalin
        • Mao frustrated at Stalin's failure to support the communists in the Chinese Civil War
        • Stalin was suspicious of Mao and feared he would adopt policies which would damage Soviet interests
        • They both had a competing desire to be the leading power in Asia
      • 1950 Treaty of Friendship, Alliance and Mutual Assistance
        • Terms
          • China accepted Soviet leadership of communist world
          • Formed a military pact against capitalist nations
          • China would receive economic and technical aid- $300 million
          • China's sovereignty in Manchuria restored
          • Mongolia remained in Soviet sphere of influence
        • Why Mao and Stalin could work together
          • Mao respected Stalin
          • Mao had no other allies
          • Mao and Stalin had common enemies
      • The Korean War 1950-53
        • Stalin wanted to avoid direct military confrontation between the superpowers but didn't want the North to be defeated
        • Mao was willing to send a volunteer force of 270,000 which allowed Stalin to achieve his objectives
        • This was highly significant: Drained Chinas resources making it more dependable on the USSR and demonstrated expertise of Chinese troops persuading Stalin China was a useful ally
        • The Korean War consolidated the relationship
    • Deterioration of Sino-Soviet relations
      • After Stalin
        • Soviet Union increased amount of support to China- 116 fully equipped industrial plants constructed
        • Aid for producing metal, prospecting oil, development of machine tools and manufacturing of locomotives
        • 8000 chinese students invited onto advanced training courses in USSR
        • Khrushchev signed agreement to give up Soviet territory in Lushun
        • Seemed to be a positive working relationship between the two at the Geneva conference in 1954
      • Personal mistrust
        • Mao had little respect for Khrushchev
        • To Mao, Khrushchev was nothing more than a timid bureaucrat
        • The Secret Speech in 1956 deepened mistrust
        • Mao argued that Khrushchev was a dangerous revisionist
      • Tension over Taiwan
        • Mao believed to liberate China he needed to gain control of Taiwan- the base of his nationalist opponents. Khrushchev refused to support this
        • Taiwan Crisis 1954-55
          • 1954 Mao began to bomb taiwan
          • US quickly signed a Mutual Defence Treaty
          • In public Khrushchev was supportive of China but privately he was clear he didn't want to jeopardise peaceful coexistence with US
        • Taiwan Crisis 1958
          • US provided matador missiles to defend Taiwan
          • Mao bombarded Quemoy and Matsu in response in august 1958
          • Khrushchev refused to support China and China was forced to back down
          • The crisis showed that Khrushchev was unwilling to support Mao's attempts to conquer Taiwan and depend Mao's mistrust of khrushchev
      • Nuclear Weapons
        • China and the Soviet Union were also divided on Nuclear weapons
        • Mao stated that he would happily see half the worlds population die in order to advance communism which alarmed Khrushchev
        • Mao viewed Khrushchevs committmentto peaceful coexistence as a sign that he was a coward betraying communism
        • Khrushchev was horrified by Mao's willingness to use nuclear weapons and refused to help China develop its own nuclear weapons
        • Instead of giving China nuclear weapons Khrushchev proposed the establishment of a radio station to monitor US submarines but Mao saw this as patronising
        • It was clear that a cat and mouse relationship had been created on the part of the Soviets
      • Border Conflict 1969
        • Military confrontation
          • Conflict over 4406-kilometre Sino-Soviet border
          • Had been some clashes over border in 1967
          • Mao became more concerned in 1968, Brezhnev ordered Soviet troops into Czechoslovakia to overthrow the government as it had left the true path of communism
            • Mao was afraid the Brezhnev doctrine might apply to China
          • Fearing Soviet attack China built up forces
          • Soviets , fearing war established a network of command centres to repel Chinese attack which convinced China they were preparing for War.
          • Mao decided to adopt policy of 'active defence' which involved a pre-emptive attack
          • 2nd March 1969 Chinese troops ambushed a Soviet patrol... Soviets threatened nuclear attack
        • Defusing the Crisis
          • Mid- September meeting between Chinese foreign minister and his Soviet equal at Beijing airport.
          • Two sides assured that they had no intention of invading and agreed to maintain the existing border and avoid military clashes
    • Ideological rivals 1958-1966
      • China's new direction
        • 1958 Mao launched the Great Leap Forward
          • It reflected growing ideological differences between the two
        • It was an economic policy claimed to be superior to Soviet model
          • It was based on the creative power of Chinese peasants over the technical expertise of Soviet advisors
        • Khrushchev was frustrated by the criticism.
        • The policy reflected Mao's increasing self-confidence and desire to replace Khrushchev
        • In 1960 Khrushchev ordered the removal of 1390 Soviet experts from China and the cancellation of 257 joint technical projects
        • The policy was a failure and caused a major famine, Mao refused Soviet offers of emergency supplies of grain and sugar
      • Public dispute
        • 1963 Open Letter of the Communist Part of the Soviet Union criticised China
        • The letter argued that China was no longer on the true path to communism
        • Mao responded saying that the Soviet Union had re-established capitalism
        • Mao's refusal to compromise was based on a genuine ideological rejection of bureaucracy
      • Moscow meeting 1964
        • With Brezhnev now in charge talks were held in Moscow with China's foreign minister
        • Talks were held during the 47th anniversary of the Russian Revolution
        • The talks were unsuccessful
        • China was increasingly unwilling to compromise: it had successfully tested a nuclear device and communist Albania had allied with China
        • Powerful figures  in the Soviet Government felt that Mao would soon be ousted
      • Chinese domestic politics
        • By mid 1960s Mao was determined to reassert his authority and eliminate his rivals
        • In 1966 he launched the Cultural Revolution
        • It was designed to purge 'Soviet Revisionists' from the Chinses government
        • During this time Mao's anti-Soviet rhetoric intensified
        • Mobs of student activists besieged the Soviet embassy in Beijing
    • US-Soviet relations
      • Why did the US want better relations with China?
        • Nixon wanted an end to US involvement in the Vietnam War
        • Hoped relations with China would weaken USSR and strengthen US
        • Nixon hoped to moderate China's influence and stop spread of communism in Asia
        • Worried by the prospect of a Sino-Soviet war leading to Soviet dominance across Asia
        • Allow US to focus its entire nuclear arsenal on the Soviet Union
      • Why did China want better relations with US?
        • Concerns over geopolitical position
        • Tension with the Soviet Union, worried about attack
        • Encircled by unfriendly states
        • Relationship with India was hostile and Soviet Union showed India public support
        • They Petroleum industry needed investment and US was the undisputed World leader
      • Ping-pong diplomacy
        • 1969 Nixon began secret talks with China
        • January 1970 the Chinese and US  ambassadors to Poland met. China wanted to arrange talked at a high level.
        • April 1971 ping-pong teams met in tournament- US team invited to China
        • Late 1971 Kissinger secretly visited Beijing for talks. It was agreed Nixon would visit in 1972
      • The Week that changed the world
        • Nixon visited China in 1972 showed bi-polar world was at an end
        • Did not lead to a formal Sino-US alliance but was successful
        • Both released a statement condemning 'Soviet Imperialism'
        • The Shanghai CommuniqueSet out certain principles.
          • No single power should dominate Asia
          • US would not tolerate Soviet invasion of China
          • Both develop closer educational and cultural links
        • Trade increased from $5million in 1972 to $500million dollars by end of 1970s
      • Impact on Soviet Union
        • Nixon visit to China horrified Soviet leadership
        • Forced USSR to cultivate better relationship with US (Moscow Summit 1972)
        • Soviet leaders began to prepare for war on two fronts- diminished effectiveness
      • Sino-US relations 1973-76
        • 1975 Kissinger and Ford visited China but due to the Watergate Scandal, Ford was in a weaker position and was not able to compromise on important issues
        • The meeting consolidated the link between the two rather than leading to a full normalisation of the Sino-US relationship

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