Science B1 1.0 - 2.0

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  • Created by: Ashleigh
  • Created on: 12-05-13 19:01
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  • Science B1 - Biology 1.0 - 2.0
    • Diet
      • Healthy Diet = Right balance of foods. If diet is unbalanced a person may become Malnourished
        • Inherited  health
          • Metabolic rate can be affected by your genes.
          • Cholesterol . You need it for your cell membranes & to make vital substances. but some people have high levels of ''bad'' cholesterol levels. You can avoid this by excersising
      • Metabolic rate is how fast the chemical reactions work in your body. If you excersise, your cells will work faster than someone who doesn't.
      • Mass will stay the same if the amount of energy you use and the amount of energy you take is the same.
    • Diseases
      • Pathogens cause infectious diseases. They are tiny microorganisms. either bacteria or viruses
        • Viruses are much smaller than bacteria. They reproduce inside cells.
      • when pathogens enter the body. they reproduce rapidly, They make you feel ill by producing toxins.
      • Before V&B were discovered. a doctor called semmelweiss discovered that infections can be transferred from person to person. He then told his staff to wash their hands beforehand
    • Defence mechanisms
      • The skin prevents pathogens getting into the body.
      • They are also trapped by mucus and killed my stomach acid
      • White blood cells are part of the immune system. They do three things to defend the body.
        • 1. They can ingest pathogens. this means they can digest and destroy them
        • 2. They produce antibodies to help destroy pathogens
        • 3.They produce anti toxins to counteract the toxins that pathogens produce
    • Using drugs to treat disease
      • Antibiotics kill infective bacteria.
      • Penicillin is also an antibiotic. discovered by alexander fleming in 1928
        • Viruses are hard to kill because they reproduce inside the cells. Treatment can kill the healthy cells.
        • Painkillers only relieve the symptoms  but do not kill the pathogen
    • Changing pathogens
      • some pathogens (mainly viruses) can mutate.resolving in a mutation. Very few people are immune to this and pathogens can spread really quickly.
      • Diseases that spread within a county is called an Epidemic
      • Diseases that spread across many countries is called a pandemic
    • immunity
      • Dead or inactive forms of a pathogen are used to make a vaccine.
        • The white bloody cells react by producing antibodies. This makes the person immune. as the body will now produce antibodies quicker as the antibodies recognised the antigen a lot faster
    • Advantages & disadvantages of vaccination
      • Over use of antibiotics can lead to the developmentof new strains of bacteria
      • Doctors don't prescribe antibiotics to mild infections such as sore throats
      • Scienctists are always trying to find a new way of treating disease

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