Cells and Inheritance. . .

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  • Created by: Chloe
  • Created on: 11-01-13 18:29
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  • Cells and Inheritance. . .
    • Cell division
      • Necessary for growth and repair
      • Meiosis
        • Reproductive organ cells divide by meiosis
        • GAMETES have one chromosome from original pair
        • Cells are unique
        • VARIATION occurs through sexual reproduction
        • ZYGOTE - a cell formed by union of two gametes
      • Mitosis
        • Chromosomes double
        • Cell divides into two cells with matching alleles.
        • ASEXUAL reproduction is mitosis
        • Daughter cells contain identical alleles
    • Mendel & DNA
      • First to say 'factors' inherited separately
      • Genetic code
        • Each gene codes for a particular combination of amino acids
      • Worked out characteristics were inherited
      • Gregor was a monk
      • 'factors' now called GENES
      • DNA is long molecule with double helix structure
      • Chromosomes made of DNA
      • Ideas took long time to be accepted
      • Scientists didn't know of Genes & Chromosomes
      • Genes are found on CHROMOSOMES
    • Untitled
    • Genetic disorders
      • Caused by recessive OR dominant alleles
      • Polydactyly is caused by a dominant allele
      • Cystic fibrosis caused by two recessive alleles
      • A 'CARRIER' has a recessive allele of the disorder
      • A person may inherit a disorder if both parents are 'carriers'
    • Genes
      • GENOTYPE- the genetic make up (which alleles)
      • PHENOTYPE- physical appearance of characteristic
      • Genes controlling characteristics are called ALLELES
      • We have 23 pairs of chromosomes
        • One pair are sex chromosomes
          • Male - XY
      • HOMOSYGOUS - both alleles the same ; DD or dd
      • HETEROZYGOUS - the two alleles are different, Dd
  • Stem cells in adult bone marrow can DIFFERENTIATE into blood cells
    • Stem cells
      • Found in embryos & adult bone marrow
      • Unspecialised cells
      • Cells differentiate e.g.
        • Muscle
        • Nerve cells
        • Hair cells
        • Tissue
      • Cells and Inheritance. . .
        • Cell division
          • Necessary for growth and repair
          • Meiosis
            • Reproductive organ cells divide by meiosis
            • GAMETES have one chromosome from original pair
            • Cells are unique
            • VARIATION occurs through sexual reproduction
            • ZYGOTE - a cell formed by union of two gametes
          • Mitosis
            • Chromosomes double
            • Cell divides into two cells with matching alleles.
            • ASEXUAL reproduction is mitosis
            • Daughter cells contain identical alleles
        • Mendel & DNA
          • First to say 'factors' inherited separately
          • Genetic code
            • Each gene codes for a particular combination of amino acids
          • Worked out characteristics were inherited
          • Gregor was a monk
          • 'factors' now called GENES
          • DNA is long molecule with double helix structure
          • Chromosomes made of DNA
          • Ideas took long time to be accepted
          • Scientists didn't know of Genes & Chromosomes
          • Genes are found on CHROMOSOMES
        • Untitled
        • Genetic disorders
          • Caused by recessive OR dominant alleles
          • Polydactyly is caused by a dominant allele
          • Cystic fibrosis caused by two recessive alleles
          • A 'CARRIER' has a recessive allele of the disorder
          • A person may inherit a disorder if both parents are 'carriers'
        • Genes
          • GENOTYPE- the genetic make up (which alleles)
          • PHENOTYPE- physical appearance of characteristic
          • Genes controlling characteristics are called ALLELES
          • We have 23 pairs of chromosomes
            • One pair are sex chromosomes
              • Male - XY
          • HOMOSYGOUS - both alleles the same ; DD or dd
          • HETEROZYGOUS - the two alleles are different, Dd

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