Short term memory

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  • Created by: RahmaM
  • Created on: 24-12-14 12:37
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  • Short term memory
    • Duration
      • PETERSON and PETERSON 1959
        • Aim: How long STM last for if rehearsal is prevented
          • Procedure: 24 participants shown trigrams, then asked to count backwards in 3s, then recall the trigram
            • Findings: Able to recall 80% of trigrams after 3 second interval. Time increased = fewer trigrams remembered. After 18 seconds less than 10% trigrams were recalled
        • Conclusion: Duration of STM is short if rehearsal is prevented
        • AO2 Participants may of been relying on more than STM, they knew they were going to be asked to recall trigrams
        • AO2 Artificial. Trigrams have no real relevance or meaning to people, lacks ecological validity.
      • Measure in seconds and minutes
    • Encoding
      • CONRAD 1964
        • Aim: To discover the effects of acoustic coding in STM
          • Procedure: Participants shown random sequence of six consonants then asked to write them down
            • Condition 1: Letters acoustically similar (B,G,C,T,V)
            • Condition 2: Letters acoustically dissimilar (F,I,X,M,S)
            • Participants made many mistakes when trying to write them in order. Found it harder to recall string of similar sounding letters
      • Some studies show STM relies on visual coding.
      • Brandimore et al 1992 participants used visual coding if given a visual task and prevented from doing verbal rehearsal .. They'd say la la la before performing visual task
      • Acoustic or visual
    • Capacity
      • JACOBS 1887
        • Procedure: Participants shown string of digits or letters, asked to repeat them back in same order. Increased digits every time
          • Conclusion: Average span for digits was 9.3 Average span for letters was 7.3
      • MILLER 1956
        • The magic number 7 +/- 2. Span of immediate memory is 7. Participants could remember 7 dots
          • People did better when chunking things
        • COWAN 2001 STM limited to about 4 chunks
          • JACOBS 1887
            • Procedure: Participants shown string of digits or letters, asked to repeat them back in same order. Increased digits every time
              • Conclusion: Average span for digits was 9.3 Average span for letters was 7.3
          • SIMON 1974
            • Shorter memory span for larger chunks
      • SIMON 1974
        • Shorter memory span for larger chunks
      • Limited, less than 7 chunks
    • Memory of immediate events. Memories last only for short time and disappear unless they are rehearsed

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