- Shield of Aeneas - Virgil (lines 41-60)
- "ruere"/ "spumare" = historic infinitives - translate as normal verbs
- in lines 46-47 Virgil picks visual details (i.e blood in water)
- 'r' sounds in lines 41-43 represent roaring of sea, alliteration of "remis rotrisque"
- the sistrum was a rattle used in religious ceremonies in Egypt, associated with Isis - Roman troops would normally have been called together by a trumpet
- very cinematic, action packed description with vivid verbs
- foreshadowing of Cleopatra's death in line 49 - she supposedly killed herself after the battle using a poisonous snake
- Egyptian gods like Anubis (dog shaped god) are contrasted with Roman gods like Neptune, Venus, Minerva and Mars.
- Dirae = the Furies ; Discordia = goddess of conflict and battle; Bellona = minor goddess of war.
- note how their visual appearance matches their role as goddesses (i.e. Discordia's torn cloak)
- Apollo is called "Actian" here as he had a temple in Actium.
- more Eastern tribes and races - patriotism verges on racism here.
- alliteration of 'v' and repetition of "iam" draws attention to these lines and heightens dramatic effect
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