Shapes and Isomerism

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  • Shapes and Isomerism
    • Structural Isomerism
      • Postitional
        • When a molecule has a different position of its functional group
        • Example - alcohols
          • Pentan-1-ol
          • Pentan-2-ol
          • Pentan-3-ol
      • Chain
        • When a straight chained molecule is turned into a branched molecule
        • Example - butane and 2-methylpropane
      • Functional Group
        • When isomers contain different functional groups
        • Example - aldehydes and ketones
          • Both have the formula   C3H6O
            • Propanal
            • Propanone
    • Stereoisomerism
      • Optical
        • Molecule must have a chiral centre (an atom which have 4 different atoms or groups of atoms attached to it)
        • Molecules are mirror images of each other
        • Example - the 2 enantiomers of 2-hydroxypropanoic acid
      • Geometric
        • Known as E/Z isomerism
        • Position of the functional groups
          • E - different sides
            • Example - trans-1,2-dichloroethene
          • Z - same side
            • Example - cis-1,2-dichloroethene
        • Restricted rotation around the C-C double bond
      • Stereoisomers have the same molecular formula and have their atoms bonded in the same order but are arranged differently
    • Isomers are molecules that have the same molecular formula but a different structure
  • Example - the 2 enantiomers of 2-hydroxypropanoic acid

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