Sexual ethics - uncomplete

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  • Sexual ethics
    • Pre-marital
      • 400 BC Herodotus - prostitution most sacred role. Today C often campaign e.g. ‘true love waits’ but w/ little impact where 90% of those pledged broke it + STI (cultural relativism).
      • Secular PM society blurred morality & emphasises liberty paradox in STIs. However, virginity still seems valued w/ ‘virgin surgery’ especially in Middle East
    • Celibacy
      • PYTHAGOREANS + STOICS - should abstain physical pleasure as intellectual life = superior. Soul = imprisoned in body. Being bound by bodys physical needs stops soul moving on. Thus sex cannot be holy. Sexual passions = lack of control
      • Physical actions i.e. sex, held back this process + was thus not holy (PLATO). - View shared by SOTICS felt sex = wrong because it led to sense of a loss of control. 
      • PAUL believed 2nd coming of Jesus more importance than sex
      • CYRENAICS - believe physical pleasure led to life of enjoyment. Immediate physical pleasure can lead to good thus it should be pursued
      • ANCIENT HEBREWS - Book of Song of Songs in O.T. = expression of erotic attraction between 2 people. Place importance in within marriage. Early society saw wife as purchase + husbands property - still view of many cultures today
        • FEMINEST - Criticizes Juedo-Christians for view of woman was created for man. Disempowers woman. Woman = socialized to fulfill mens needs - wife and mother
      • Still held by some religious figure i.e. POPE
      • Strong links w/ Mill’s idea of higher pleasures
      • Celibacy encourages unsafe sex
    • Extra-marital
      • ‘Thou shall not commit adultery’ + ancient Rome death penalty. However, Jesus ‘he who is w/o sin cast first stone’ + concubines of Abraham
      • Christianity emphasises bond of marriage as sacred union joined together by God. Some C see divorce & re-marrying as adultery
      • Today is leading cause of divorce & can affect kids
      • Kirshenbaum ‘17 reasons why’ – not a bad thing & lie because not hurting someone is a higher moral principle than truth (util/Kant)
      • PM society makes not getting caught nearly impossible
    • Homosexuality
      • First outlaw in book of Leviticus ‘you shall not lie w/ a man as with a women’ stemming from NL PP. Debate over naturalism, rights & conscious choice w/ the stereotypes still remaining of illegal & C ‘evil’
      • Developments started occurring in 80s where legalised & no longer in DSM
      • 25 yrs after Denmark in 05 UK recognised civil partnerships & their rights against much C dispute
      • Further developments inc. 07 equality act made gay discrimination illegal inc. CC adoption agencies (church state separation + 1st amendment) – religious discrimination?
      • PM society & should recognise all ways of life equal
      • Some C’s see it as devaluing marriage – problem more divorce than gays
      • Equality act: everyone has right to equal access to resources – religious discrimination?
      • same sex adoption: 70k children not put in home every year – 8% adopted by single parents (util approach)
    • Contraception
      • Free condoms available in GP even for those under 16 + recommendation of giving out in school due to Britain still has highest rate of teen pregnancy in EU
      • Schools in Derby & Swindon carried out this recommendation giving out condoms & morning after pill for those who need it – came under fire for giving out condoms to under 16s for encouraging rather than educating
      • Pill: A lot of organisation required – teens can’t be trusted
      • Pill: Doesn’t protect against STIs demonstrated by no. doubling in 10 years
      • New gov initiative announced to provide girls 12+ w/ implants w/o parental notification. Many believe this encourages underage sex + plants have a right 
    • Ethical approaches
      • Situation ethics
      • Natural Law
      • Christian ethics
      • Utilitarianism
      • Virtue ethics


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