Sexual Ethics - Approaches

HideShow resource information
View mindmap
  • Sexual Ethics
    • Rule utilitarianism  (MILL) 
      • Homosexuality
        • Mill considered public and private morality BUT he did argue that the pleasure of homosexual minorities outweighs the pain of those who oppose homosexuality
        • This is because ultimately their views will be based on prejudice and intolerance. The higher pleasure lies in the love found in a homosexual relationship.
      • Extra-marital sex
        • It leads to harm, potentially does not consider the interests of others, will also affect families etc
        • Therefore, it is unlikely to be justified. It is better to follow rules that say adultery is not ok than rules which say it is. 
      • Pre-marital sex
        • Relationships should lead to higher pleasures. Having one night stands would not lead to this. 
        • However, if the adults are consenting and mutually respectful then it would be justified. 
      • Harm principle = you can do whatever you want as long as you cause no harm to others.
    • Situation Ethics
      • Pre-marital sex
        • Could be justified if for loving reasons
        • It may be more practical to live together and have sex than to waste money getting married & realise you don’t get on (pragmatism).
        • It could also put people first (personalism)
      • Extra-marital sex
        • Although at face value it would not be justified it could under some circumstances E,.g. adultery for lust NO. . Adultery to save a life, YES. 
      • Homosexuality
        • It seems unjust to allow heterosexual couples rights but not allow homosexual couples rights
        • It is practical and also just, old rules seem out of date, if the motive is loving then it is justified. 
      • Evaluation:
        • ·   Love is subjective
        • ·   Could justify abhorrent acts
        • ·   Considers multiple purposes of sex
        • Some sexual actions need moral rules eg. ****
    • ACT Utilitarianism (Bentham)
      • Homosexuality
        • ACT (BENTHAM): if the majority view homosexuality as harmful then it should not be allowed. 
        • Could justify the banning of homosexual acts and relations in public.
        • For him, sexuality is a matter of taste
        • . To penalise someone because of their sexual orientation is wrong.
      • Extra-marital sex
        • ACT (BENTHAM): Extra marital sex would not be justified as could lead to greater pain than pleasure. 
        • However, it could be that an open marriage may lead to pleasure
      • Pre-marital sex
        • ACT (BENTHAM): Sex is "the greatest, and perhaps the only real pleasures of mankind": 
        • Premarital sex could be justified due to the pleasure it leads to.
      • Evaluation
        • + considers the pleasure and happiness that can come from sex
        • + considers the outcome – real issues!
        • + Flexible
        • -domination of majority is unfair
        • consequence can’t always be predicted
        • -Devlin: impossible to distinguish between what takes place in public and at home. 
        • - Many moral wrongs take place in the home. These should be policed just the same e.g. domestic violence, child abuse
    • Natural Law
      • Homosexuality
        • It is evident from this that every emission of semen, in such a way that generation cannot follow, is contrary to the good of man & if deliberately done, it must be a sin” 
        • (Summa Contra Gentiles) Never allowed as does not lead to reproduction (POWER)
      • Extra-marital sex
        • Could be justified if a woman is unable to get pregnant. 
        • Otherwise it would be unacceptable
      • Pre-marital sex
        • Not allowed as a marriage unites a couple as one
        • Also links to an ordered society
        • Children need a stable upbringing
        • Having sex because it is good is an apparent good and a vincible error. 
      • Evaluation:
        • · Too much focus on reproduction, what about people who are barren or old people? 
        • · Burton M.  Leiser: There are multiple purposes of sex, to say it is just reproduction is ridiculous. 
        • · Could justify adultery!
        • Catholic Church is also criticised for being too homophobic
    • Kant
      • Pre-marital sex
        • Shows a lack of commitment Would lead to using people as a means to your own enjoyment. Therefore wrong
      • Extra-marital sex
        • Grounds for divorce Breaks the promises of marriage Not following duties of a husband/ wife
        • Leads to someone being used as a means to an end
      • Homosexuality
        • Leads to use and abuse Can universalise sex for reproduction but can’t be done in a homosexual relationship Called it “crimine carnis” – crime of the flesh 
          • Giving in to this lust leads to harm 
        • Difficult to really apply his ideas in 2018.
      • Evaluation:
        • + prevents people from being used
        • + divides our animal nature from our rational nature
        • + is fair
        • -difficult to apply universal rules today as gay marriage is legal 
        • - does not consider emotions
        • -Schopenhauer- homosexuality prevents greater evils
        • - Kant was a hypocrite as he was celibate

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Religious Studies resources:

See all Religious Studies resources »See all Ethics resources »