Sexual Ethics

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  • Created on: 10-02-16 20:00
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  • Sexual Ethics
    • Sexual ethics ecompasses a wide variety of issues ranging from abortion to homosexuality to prostitution, to rape.
    • Historical views of sex:    - Originally the greek saw sex as something that was weakening to the mind.          - The Pythagoreans, who influenced Plato, believed that humans should refrain from physical activities (Platos model of the charioteer and horses )             - The cynics on the other hand saw no point in controlling sexual desrire- they even performed it in public! Thus the early history of sex/ relationships as far as philosophy was concerned was riddleed with contradictions which have continued ever since.
    • Old Testament approach:          - Is a reflection of its time and does not seem to have one particular view on sex/  relationships.   - e.g Ruth and Boaz (love story and rape) Lot and his two daughters (incest/rape).
    • New Testament approach:          - Jesus said very little about sex.                    - Paul said sexual activity should be kept within a marriage as the body is a temple of the Holy Spirit and should be respected.         - QUOTE         - He has unconsistent views of womrn and marriage. e.g he sees them as all equal 'There is no longer jew or greek, there is no longer slave or free, there is no longer male and female; for all of you are one in Christ Jesus.' But then he also argues women should obey their husbands 'Wives be subject to your husbands as you are to the Lord...'
    • Augustine and sexual ethics:   - He saw sex as dangerous   - Sex was restircted to marriage          Aquinas and sexual ethics:   - His views were accepted by Christians until they began to be questioned in modern times. - The purpose of sex is to procreate , if it isn't for that then it is wrong
    • Kant -               The categorical  Imperative cause Kant to take a conservative attitude towards sexual ethics. Acts such as extramarital sex and adultery cannot be universalised unless a man wants his wife, children, parents etc to engage in those activities. As well as this he says homosexuality cannot be universalized.   - Kant said sex should only be allowed in marriage.The purpose he believes, as in Natural Law is to procreate      - People should not be treated as a means to an ends              - No emotions, he emphasizes the physical side of sex.
    • Utilitarianism      - Reasons for having sex are: the value of pleasure      - no harm due to consent            - greatest happiness for the greatest number.           - Their approach to sex is ofren called liibertzrian         - It appraoches sex/relationships on a more than contractaian appraoch- emphasising  mutual consent etc.     - J.S.Mill stressed the value of liberty, and in 'On Liberty' suggested that this should be a matter of individeual choice.  He argues we should use the Harm Principle towards sex/relationships.
    • Virtue Ethics -  differs from other approaches as its agent based not action based.    - Virtue ethics points to enduring virtues of love, commitent, honesty etc.     - According to Rosalind Hursthouse, VE implies that an action is right if it is what a virtoues person, who has and excersises virtues , would characteristically do in the circumstances.  -Michael Slote emphasises the ethics of care in relationships which requires a sort of 3 way balance as far as sexual ethics is concerned: care for those who are near to us (intimate care) care for other people in general (humantiarian care) and care for our own well being (self care).               - VE also urges us to rediscover blanace in human sexuality and in our relationsips.
    • Christian Ethics-      primarily based on teachings of the Bible and the Church.     - Traditional Christians against anything such as homosexuality as it is seen as unnatural.      -Liberal Christians are slightly more flexible.
      • Roman Catholicism -     would teach the moral wrongness and inappropriateness of the following acts:   - premarital and extramarital sex                  - sex for pleasure           - homosexual acts                 - contraception          - abortion           - masturbation
        • Sexual Ethics
          • Sexual ethics ecompasses a wide variety of issues ranging from abortion to homosexuality to prostitution, to rape.
          • Historical views of sex:    - Originally the greek saw sex as something that was weakening to the mind.          - The Pythagoreans, who influenced Plato, believed that humans should refrain from physical activities (Platos model of the charioteer and horses )             - The cynics on the other hand saw no point in controlling sexual desrire- they even performed it in public! Thus the early history of sex/ relationships as far as philosophy was concerned was riddleed with contradictions which have continued ever since.
          • Old Testament approach:          - Is a reflection of its time and does not seem to have one particular view on sex/  relationships.   - e.g Ruth and Boaz (love story and rape) Lot and his two daughters (incest/rape).
          • New Testament approach:          - Jesus said very little about sex.                    - Paul said sexual activity should be kept within a marriage as the body is a temple of the Holy Spirit and should be respected.         - QUOTE         - He has unconsistent views of womrn and marriage. e.g he sees them as all equal 'There is no longer jew or greek, there is no longer slave or free, there is no longer male and female; for all of you are one in Christ Jesus.' But then he also argues women should obey their husbands 'Wives be subject to your husbands as you are to the Lord...'
          • Augustine and sexual ethics:   - He saw sex as dangerous   - Sex was restircted to marriage          Aquinas and sexual ethics:   - His views were accepted by Christians until they began to be questioned in modern times. - The purpose of sex is to procreate , if it isn't for that then it is wrong
          • Kant -               The categorical  Imperative cause Kant to take a conservative attitude towards sexual ethics. Acts such as extramarital sex and adultery cannot be universalised unless a man wants his wife, children, parents etc to engage in those activities. As well as this he says homosexuality cannot be universalized.   - Kant said sex should only be allowed in marriage.The purpose he believes, as in Natural Law is to procreate      - People should not be treated as a means to an ends              - No emotions, he emphasizes the physical side of sex.
          • Utilitarianism      - Reasons for having sex are: the value of pleasure      - no harm due to consent            - greatest happiness for the greatest number.           - Their approach to sex is ofren called liibertzrian         - It appraoches sex/relationships on a more than contractaian appraoch- emphasising  mutual consent etc.     - J.S.Mill stressed the value of liberty, and in 'On Liberty' suggested that this should be a matter of individeual choice.  He argues we should use the Harm Principle towards sex/relationships.
          • Virtue Ethics -  differs from other approaches as its agent based not action based.    - Virtue ethics points to enduring virtues of love, commitent, honesty etc.     - According to Rosalind Hursthouse, VE implies that an action is right if it is what a virtoues person, who has and excersises virtues , would characteristically do in the circumstances.  -Michael Slote emphasises the ethics of care in relationships which requires a sort of 3 way balance as far as sexual ethics is concerned: care for those who are near to us (intimate care) care for other people in general (humantiarian care) and care for our own well being (self care).               - VE also urges us to rediscover blanace in human sexuality and in our relationsips.
          • Christian Ethics-      primarily based on teachings of the Bible and the Church.     - Traditional Christians against anything such as homosexuality as it is seen as unnatural.      -Liberal Christians are slightly more flexible.
            • Roman Catholicism -     would teach the moral wrongness and inappropriateness of the following acts:   - premarital and extramarital sex                  - sex for pleasure           - homosexual acts                 - contraception          - abortion           - masturbation
            • Feminism   -     For feminists religious roles of women as submissive, stay at home, child bearing wives are wrong.  Male dominance has caused women to be mistreated, abused, repressed etc, therefore women are perceived in this socially constructed role even by themselves.      - If a women is a mans property (as the Bible seems to suggest) then he can do what he likes with her and this has been reinforced through the centuries.         - Nussbaum says the reason why women have been supressed is becaduse of traditionally believed virtues of women such as 'gentleness' - She says virtues are male constructed and imposed on women.
      • Feminism   -     For feminists religious roles of women as submissive, stay at home, child bearing wives are wrong.  Male dominance has caused women to be mistreated, abused, repressed etc, therefore women are perceived in this socially constructed role even by themselves.      - If a women is a mans property (as the Bible seems to suggest) then he can do what he likes with her and this has been reinforced through the centuries.         - Nussbaum says the reason why women have been supressed is becaduse of traditionally believed virtues of women such as 'gentleness' - She says virtues are male constructed and imposed on women.

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