Sex and Gender

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  • Sex and Gender
    • Identity
      • Sex identity: a biological term identified by hormones and chromosomes. Male or female
      • Gender Identity: a physiological term identified by attitudes and behavior. The gender identity is masculine or feminine
      • Male: testosterone, XY       Female: oestrogen, **
    • Social learning theory
      • Watching and copying the behaviors of others. Involves modelling, imitation and vicarious reinforcement
        • Children will model others if: they are similar, more powerful, loving towards them
      • Media provides models for gender development. Shows men and women in stereotyped ways.
      • Evaluation
        • Well supported with lots of studies
        • Doesn't bring in lone-parent households or same sex children in the same home and their differences
        • It ignores the biological differences between males and females because it believes gender is learnt
    • Gender schema theory
      • It is the mental building block of knowledge that contains information about each gender. The gender schemas of some people are made up of stereotypes.
      • At a young age children know whether they are male or female. They about genders from what they see in their environment. They have rigid and stereotyped ideas
        • As they get older they learn more about each gender and their gender schemas become more flexible
      • Some children remain highly stereotyped and some less
      • Evaluation
        • Can be seen as the most detailed. it is well supported and fits with our own experiences
        • Doesn't test why some children are more gender schematized than others, why gender development begins at age 2
    • Psycho dynamic theory - Freud
      • Evaluation
        • Based on unconscious thoughts and feelings, can't be tested
        • Little evidence. Physiologists have shown theirs lo link between increase in lone-parent households and increase in homosexuals
        • Physiologists have shown a wide range of people influence child's gender development
        • Little Han's is only a case study and can't be generalized
      • Development happens in 5 stages. 3rd is Phallic stage(3-5)
        • Child unconsciously desires the opposite-sex parent and is jealous of the same sex parent.
          • To deal with this the child behaves like the same sex parent - Identification
      • Gender development in boys
        • Oedipus complex- Boy desires mother and is jealous of father and wants to take his place. He fears he will find out
        • To deal with the anxiety he gives up feelings for mother and identifies with father. Adopts masculine gender role
      • Gender development in girls
        • Electra complex: girl unconsciously desires father and is jealous of mother. Fears losing her mothers love
        • She identifies with her mother to resolve electra complex


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