settlement change


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  • Settlement change
    • functions of settlements
      • administrations: local authority offices run the local services.
      • services:settlements contain public services such as schools.
      • residential:  must provide a place to sleep.
      • industrial: factories are often located around the outskirts.
      • tourism: some settlements have many activities which attract people to visit the area.
    • natural factors and physical factors affecting a site
      • transport routes
      • fire wood
      • running water
      • flat land
      • communication
      • shealter
    • counter urbanisation
      • this is when people move out of urban areas
      • why is is happening
        • urban areas are unpleasant to live
        • more people own cars do the commute is not an issues
        • technology advantage so more people are working from home
        • ageing population
        • business parks are now on the outskirts of the city.
        • impacts
          • improve look of area by turning derelict houses into dwellings
          • many people still work in urban areas causing congestion and pollution
          • more pupils going to local primary schools so they don't have to close
          • less spirit
          • as people move in housing prices increase so locals cant buy
          • new houses may damage the enviroment
          • new residents may use local shops and buinesses
          • may be conflict between new and old residents
          • new residents may still shop in urban areas
    • changing landuse
      • people get married later
      • certain areas are designated as rapid growth areas
      • places offering 100% morgage so easier for young people
      • grandparents now live alone instead of with their families
      • the government is developing Eco towns. 12 are on their way
      • the government has proposed 3 million new homes by 2020
      • a rise in divorces which means two houses per family
      • an increase in demand for 1 and 2 bedroom dwellings
      • more people live alone as there is an ageing population
  • Brownfield sites: bracknell
    • an area of the city which is no longer used
    • advantages
      • easier to get planning permission
      • already present infastructure
      • less of an urban sprawll
    • disadvantages
      • environmental survey need
      • sites have to be cleared
      • land costs are higher
  • Greenfield sites: norwich
    • an area on the edge of the city which has never been built on
    • advantages
      • lots of space
      • cheaper land
      • lower construction costs
      • easy market potential to buyers
    • disadvantages
      • no availible infastructure
      • difficult to get planning permission
      • disruption to local area
  • the urban fringe
    • the outher edge of a built up area
    • advantages
      • near to countryside and city
      • lots of factories moved to the sububurbs so less travelling time
      • built on a green field site
    • disadvantages
      • waste of countryside
      • high dependence on car transport
      • unformity of architecture
  • inner city
    • redevelopment of inner city brownfield sites
    • advantages
      • new houses
      • close to town
      • high security
      • ideal for familes
    • disadvantages
      • highprices
      • separates the 'haves' and 'have nots'
  • commuter belt
    • this builds new houses within the urban fringe
    • advantages
      • housing estates
    • disadvantages
      • long travel to work
  • ecotowns
    • environmentalyfriendly
    • largely car free
    • brownfield sites
  • cairo
    • reasons for rapid growth
      • migration from rural areas
      • natural increas
    • sources of noise polution
      • millions of vechicles
      • loud speakers calling Muslims to church
      • noise of night clubs
    • how to combat air polution
      • low emission gas bills
      • expanding metro system
    • problems
      • lack of vitiman d because sun is blocked by smog
      • lung problems
      • tooth decay
      • loss of intelligance

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