Settlement Change


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  • Settlement Change
    • Functions of  Settlements
      • Residential- A major function of many settlements is to give people a place to live. Often found close to larger towns or cities where the inhabitants work.
      • Administrative Often county towns that employ a large number of people as civil servants and are centers of the local government.
      • Market Centres- To provide service for the local area. Often found in fertile farming areas. Usually had a weekly market and good transport links.
      • Industrial- To provide jobs in the secondary industry.They were located on coalfields and had good access to railways and canals.Many were found near north Staffordshire, such as Kidsgrove near Birmingham.
      • Strategic- Settlements that used physical geography for protection from attack.
        • On top of hills or beside a gap in a range of hills for defence
        • On the inside of meanders or on an island in a river
      • Tourist Resorts- Developed with the arrival of the railways which meant that people could travel around the country easily. Major cities are now tourist resorts
        • Some developed in coastal locations like Blackpool and Brighton. They provide the population with a place to visit for recreational purposes by the sea.
        • Others grew around spa towns like Bath, or settlements in National Parks have developed as tourist resorts.
    • Counter-urbanisation
      • The movement out of cities to rural areas or smaller urban settlements.
      • Changes to rural communities
        • Environment Changes
          • Many of the migrants still work in urban areas, causing pollution.
          • Old derelict farm buildings are turned into habitable dwellings which adds to the aesthetic value and community well-being.
          • Villages become "ghost" towns during day.
        • Social Changes
          • The traditions of villages are not valued
          • Many church parishes have been amalgamated
          • Local schools have an increase in pupils and are able to stay open
        • Economic Changes
          • House prices in rural areas rise as demand increases . Locals may not be able to afford it and have to move.
          • Many migrants don't support local businesses as they shop where they work.
        • Demographic Changes
          • People who move to rural areas tend to be more affluent, they either have a young family or are retied.
        • Example: Austrey in Warwickshire
          • People moved out of the city Birmingham and local town Tamworth into this village in the 70's
            • Population increased from 300 in 1961 to 1000 in 2001.
          • The environment of the village changed with new housing estates being built such as St Nicholas Close farmsteads. The character of the village is lost.
            • But village pubs and shops are thriving.
          • Village school now has a roll of 120 pupils; in 1961 it was 16.
    • How the functions of the settlement Aberfan (in South Wales) has changed over time
      • An agricultural settlement grew in the bottom of the valley close to the River Taff, approx 5 miles from Merthyr Tydfil
        • Merthyr Vale coal mine opened in 1875. The main function changed to become an industrial settlement.
          • In 1989 the coal mine closed and the function changed to residential. Still a number of farms though. It is a commuter village with the people who live there working in local towns/cities.
            • Also a retirement settlement as the population is aging and the age structure has more people over 60
    • Depopulation of remote rural areas
      • People moving away from the countryside
      • Demographic Changes
        • There has been a decline in age bands up to 40, as young people leave the area and their is an aging population.
      • Economic Changes
        • As the population is older, less money is used for public services such as waste + water treatment.
        • Fewer people are working so the economy is decreasing
      • Environment Changes
        • Signs of neglect and derelict buildings which is unappealing.
        • But the decrease in population, increases the wildlife of the area.
      • Social Changes
        • The population who remain there have seen a decline in service provision.
          • In 2001, 600000 lived in rural areas, 45% had no doctor, bus or post office.
          • Post offices and schools are closing as they aren't profitable.
    • Changing land use in Urban Areas
      • Increased demand in housing
      • DeIndustrialisation
        • Manufacturing has moved to LICs where production costs are lower
      • Redevelopment
        • When buildings in a city are no longer of use, are demolished and replaced
      • Renewal
        • When old buildings are renovated
    • Greenfield Sites
      • Area on the edge of the city, which has never been developed.
      • Advantages
        • Lots of space for landscaping and car parking and access to development is easier as roads aren't congested.
        • Cheaper land
        • Lower construction costs and easier to market.
      • Disadvantages
        • Infrastructure isn't present
        • Buildings can disturb natural wildlife and habitats
        • Difficult to get planning permission as government is usually against it
        • Increases commute for people and urban sprawl uses up green spaces on the edges
        • Some people may not want to live away from the city because of their social life
    • Brownfield Sites
      • Area within the city, which is no longer used, may contain old factories or have been cleared.
      • Advantages
        • Easy to get planning permission
        • Infrastructure is already present
        • Sites are easier to market because of access to entertainment and facilities
        • Lessens urban sprawl
      • Disadvantages
        • Complete environmental survey is needed
        • Have to be cleared and decontaminated
        • Land costs are higher
        • Cities may have social problems, as well as high levels of pollution and congestion. This makes it difficult to market.
    • Case Study
      • Rapid Growth on a LIC urban area-Cairo
        • Air pollution from 2 million cars and 200000 motorbikes. In the industrial quarter Shoubra al- Kheima, where many people live close to work, 37% suffer from lung problems. Sun's rays blocked out by smog and many children suffer from vitamin D deficiency
        • Water pollution- 23% of the population don't have access to fresh water. 25% aren't connected to the public sewage system.
        • Land pollution- 10000 tonnes of solid waste is produced a day by the population; only 60% is collected and the rest is left to rot in streets. Large toxic stockpiles of hazardous waste, as much as 50000 tonnes left by industry
        • Noise pollution- Noise from the vehicles and the loud speakers for prayers. Noise of nightclubs along the River Nile. Particularly bad in the Saraya Al Gezira district.
        • Housing problems- 60% of Cairo's population live in shanty dwellings. The most famous is Arafa (cemetery). It is 4 miles long where people work on their dead ancestors. The government built cities along the edge of Cairo, in the desert. But most people want to live in the city closer to work.

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