Seperatism

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  • Separatism within and/ or across the national boundaries
    • Separatism is an attempt by a minority group within a country to gain greater independence or separatism from the main country in order to protect its individualism
    • CASE STUDY 1 : SCOTLAND
      • Referendum held on 18th September 2014
        • Reasons for Scottish independence
          • Historical Reasons - Scotland was an independent country from its foundations in the early middle ages until 1707, showing it has successfully been an independent country before
          • Cultural Reasons - cultural identity has tended to be marginalised in favour of the English cultural identity which has had the negative effect of supressing the true sense of who scots really are
            • Becoming independent would mean they would be able to re-establish there identity for example, the teaching of own language in schools
          • The ownership of an estimated 20 billion barrels of recoverable oil and gas reserves beneath the UK part of the North Sea,
            • Meaning if they become independent they wont be reliant of other country's for main source of energy
            • Also being independent would mean there resources and wealth would be controlled by the scots and not squandered by the Westminster government
          • Economic reasons
            • The ownership of an estimated 20 billion barrels of recoverable oil and gas reserves beneath the UK part of the North Sea,
              • Meaning if they become independent they wont be reliant of other country's for main source of energy
              • Also being independent would mean there resources and wealth would be controlled by the scots and not squandered by the Westminster government
          • Political Reasons - the principle of political self determination - Scots will be making decisions for themselves
        • Reasons AGAINST Scottish independence
          • 1/5 of Scottish workers are employed by English/Welsh/Irish
          • 31,000 workers in Scotland have jobs in the UK government
          • Scottish banks bailed out £470 B from UK Tax payers
          • Pensions of 1 million scots guaranteed by the UK welfare system
          • Scotland university's receive 15% of UK research funding
      • This date was chosen as it was the anniversary of the Battle of Bannockburn, when the scots defeated the English and gained independence
      • The referendum question was ' Should Scotland be independent'
      • Only Scottish residents where eligible to vote
      • Timeline of Scottish Independence history
        • Separatism within and/ or across the national boundaries
          • Separatism is an attempt by a minority group within a country to gain greater independence or separatism from the main country in order to protect its individualism
          • CASE STUDY 1 : SCOTLAND
            • Referendum held on 18th September 2014
              • Reasons for Scottish independence
                • Historical Reasons - Scotland was an independent country from its foundations in the early middle ages until 1707, showing it has successfully been an independent country before
                • Cultural Reasons - cultural identity has tended to be marginalised in favour of the English cultural identity which has had the negative effect of supressing the true sense of who scots really are
                  • Becoming independent would mean they would be able to re-establish there identity for example, the teaching of own language in schools
                • Economic reasons
                  • Political Reasons - the principle of political self determination - Scots will be making decisions for themselves
                • Reasons AGAINST Scottish independence
                  • 1/5 of Scottish workers are employed by English/Welsh/Irish
                  • 31,000 workers in Scotland have jobs in the UK government
                  • Scottish banks bailed out £470 B from UK Tax payers
                  • Pensions of 1 million scots guaranteed by the UK welfare system
                  • Scotland university's receive 15% of UK research funding
              • This date was chosen as it was the anniversary of the Battle of Bannockburn, when the scots defeated the English and gained independence
              • The referendum question was ' Should Scotland be independent'
              • Only Scottish residents where eligible to vote
              • Timeline of Scottish Independence history
                • 1314 - Scottish victory at battle of Bannockburn
                • 1707 - Scotland decides to become part of the United Kingdom ( partly as a result of economic crisis) resulting in political union and parliament moving to London
                • 1934 - Scottish National Party formed to campaign for greater political power from the Uk
                • 1999 - Referendum on devolution is held and 74% of scots vote for greater political freedom, Scottish parliament is created
                • 2011 - SNP have a landslide victory and come into power in the Scottish parliament, Alex sammond becomes leader of SNP and the first minister of Scotland
                  • Proposes a referendum on Scottish independance
                • Oct 2012 - Uk government and Scottish Government agree to work together to ensure a referendum can take place
                • 18th Sept 2014 - date of referendum, 45% for, 55% against
              • Nature of Seperatism
                • Violent consequences - this includes civil war and terrorism
                • Peaceful Consequences - this involves holding a referendum for greater political independence, creation of laws for the teaching of the language in schools and establishing and maintaining their own cultural identity
                • Over time the nature of separatism has become more peaceful as thee is less violent actions such as civil wars and more referendums such as the one that was held on the 18th of September 2014
              • The Consequences of Seperatism
                • An independent Scotland would retain Queen Elizabeth as head of state
                • Would need to reapply for NATO membership and European Union
                • They would also need to decide on a currency
                • Scotland would have to negotiate a share of the UK national debt
                • Scotland would have to negotiate with the UK over the North sea revenue
                • 'Bedroom tax' imposed by Westminster would be overturned in Scotland
              • The future
                • In order to persuade the Scottish residents to vote against independence, the UK government agreed to a number of alterations to the powers of the Scottish parliment
                • Similar to what the SNP suggested in the initial referendum - termed 'Devo-Max'
                • Some of the increased powers Scottish people where offered are
                  • Ability to Set income tax rates and bands
                  • Allow 16/17 year olds to vote in elections
                  • Control over air passenger duty
                  • Part share in VAT recipes
                • What has happened since the 'no' vote
                  • More powers given to scotland
                  • New 'Scotland Act' law published by burns night
                    • However this will not be passed until after the UK general election in may 2015,
                  • Questions to whether this should mean only English MPs should vote on English matters
                    • This a disadvantage to political parties that have a large quantity of Scottish MPs, for example labour
            • A referendum is a direct vote, a vote to object or reject a proposal
            • CASE STUDY 2 : SOUTH SUDAN
              • Landlocked between the central African republic, the Dominican republic of congo,Ethiopia and kenya
              • Reasons for separatist pressures (independence)
                • Historical - black Africans have lived in this area for over 600 years and desire to establish a homeland
                  • The borders where drawn up by colonal powers in the 1950's and little regard was given to the cultural differences that exist between the North and South
                • Cultural and religious - Northerners speak Arabic and Muslim and the government is based here, southerners say they are discriminated against and where angered at attempts of Islamic Sharia law being imposed of entire country
                  • In the south there are no dominant cultures/religions, however mainly Christians and animists
                • Economic - the south holds 80% of Sudan's oil reserves but receives only 50% of revenues.
                  • Neglected by central government
                  • Southerners know the south is economically viable and could possibly exploit this to help develop the country, however the north has the refineries and pipelines
                    • With independence, the south would be in control of whether/how much oil the north could take through their pipelines
                • Political reasons
                  • Political - Northern based Govt has 'stolen land' and given it too military leaders from the north, forcing people of their land and leaving them as refugees/ internally displaced people
                    • Corrupt Govt
                  • Referendum created the Comprehensive peace agreement in 2005, ending the war
                • Religious - The North of Sudan is mainly Muslim, and the south is mainly Christian
              • Consequences of Sudanese separatist pressures
                • The first civil war took place through 1955-1972 this consequence in 1/2 million deaths, and hundreds and thousands of IDP
                • The second civil war, took place through 1983-2005, some of the consequences were 2 million deaths and 4 million displaced
                  • Black Africans formed Sudan's people aberration army rose in rebellion when the govt cancelled autonomy arrangement
                • The war was resolved in 2005, when a peace agreement guaranteed southerners regional autonomy along with guaranteed representation in a regional power sharing govt
                  • Layed down grounds for referendum
                • Violent/Peaceful
              • Challenges for newly independent country
                • 1/7 Children die before the age of 5
                • !/2 of the population is fed by aid agencys
                • Desperately poor country
                • Small active population
                  • Low taxes and high dependency rate
                • High birth rate meaning a population explosion in the future - pressure on resources
                • Many living in tribal villages
                • Landmines - hard to remove as entangled in vegetation
                • Only 4% of land is cultivated, however there is much more potential,
                • 20,000 children forced to flee their homes during the war - orphans
            • CASE STUDY 3 : BASQUE
              • A group of people living in northern Spain and south western France
              • Reason for seperest  pressures
                • Historical claims to the land
                • Cultural - the baques already have their own culture and language
                  • Their language ' Euskara ' has been banned from public signs and it is now illegal to teach in schools
                    • During the time of the excecutions, no longer
                  • War between the basques and home country, violent campaigns towards the police and security forces, as well as political/ governmental figures + buildings
                • Political - Nationalists have been executed or imprisoned
                  • By Franco, leader of Spain until 1975
                • Geographical - peripheral position
              • Consequences
                • Political
                  • A referendum that was held discovered that there was huge support for automony
                  • A Basque parliament was therefore created
                  • ETA ( terrorist group) has been formed - 800 people have been killed due to these attacks
                    • Now cease fired but still want independence from France and Spain
                    • December 2006, during peace taks, ETA car bombed a Madrid airport killing 2 people
              • A case study on regionalism rather than nationalism
          • 1314 - Scottish victory at battle of Bannockburn
          • 1707 - Scotland decides to become part of the United Kingdom ( partly as a result of economic crisis) resulting in political union and parliament moving to London
          • 1934 - Scottish National Party formed to campaign for greater political power from the Uk
          • 1999 - Referendum on devolution is held and 74% of scots vote for greater political freedom, Scottish parliament is created
          • 2011 - SNP have a landslide victory and come into power in the Scottish parliament, Alex sammond becomes leader of SNP and the first minister of Scotland
            • Proposes a referendum on Scottish independance
          • Oct 2012 - Uk government and Scottish Government agree to work together to ensure a referendum can take place
          • 18th Sept 2014 - date of referendum, 45% for, 55% against
        • Nature of Seperatism
          • Violent consequences - this includes civil war and terrorism
          • Peaceful Consequences - this involves holding a referendum for greater political independence, creation of laws for the teaching of the language in schools and establishing and maintaining their own cultural identity
          • Over time the nature of separatism has become more peaceful as thee is less violent actions such as civil wars and more referendums such as the one that was held on the 18th of September 2014
        • The Consequences of Seperatism
          • An independent Scotland would retain Queen Elizabeth as head of state
          • Would need to reapply for NATO membership and European Union
          • They would also need to decide on a currency
          • Scotland would have to negotiate a share of the UK national debt
          • Scotland would have to negotiate with the UK over the North sea revenue
          • 'Bedroom tax' imposed by Westminster would be overturned in Scotland
        • The future
          • In order to persuade the Scottish residents to vote against independence, the UK government agreed to a number of alterations to the powers of the Scottish parliment
          • Similar to what the SNP suggested in the initial referendum - termed 'Devo-Max'
          • Some of the increased powers Scottish people where offered are
            • Ability to Set income tax rates and bands
            • Allow 16/17 year olds to vote in elections
            • Control over air passenger duty
            • Part share in VAT recipes
          • What has happened since the 'no' vote
            • More powers given to scotland
            • New 'Scotland Act' law published by burns night
              • However this will not be passed until after the UK general election in may 2015,
            • Questions to whether this should mean only English MPs should vote on English matters
              • This a disadvantage to political parties that have a large quantity of Scottish MPs, for example labour
      • A referendum is a direct vote, a vote to object or reject a proposal
      • CASE STUDY 2 : SOUTH SUDAN
        • Landlocked between the central African republic, the Dominican republic of congo,Ethiopia and kenya
        • Reasons for separatist pressures (independence)
          • Historical - black Africans have lived in this area for over 600 years and desire to establish a homeland
            • The borders where drawn up by colonal powers in the 1950's and little regard was given to the cultural differences that exist between the North and South
          • Cultural and religious - Northerners speak Arabic and Muslim and the government is based here, southerners say they are discriminated against and where angered at attempts of Islamic Sharia law being imposed of entire country
            • In the south there are no dominant cultures/religions, however mainly Christians and animists
          • Economic - the south holds 80% of Sudan's oil reserves but receives only 50% of revenues.
            • Neglected by central government
            • Southerners know the south is economically viable and could possibly exploit this to help develop the country, however the north has the refineries and pipelines
              • With independence, the south would be in control of whether/how much oil the north could take through their pipelines
          • Political reasons
            • Political - Northern based Govt has 'stolen land' and given it too military leaders from the north, forcing people of their land and leaving them as refugees/ internally displaced people
              • Corrupt Govt
            • Referendum created the Comprehensive peace agreement in 2005, ending the war
          • Religious - The North of Sudan is mainly Muslim, and the south is mainly Christian
        • Consequences of Sudanese separatist pressures
          • The first civil war took place through 1955-1972 this consequence in 1/2 million deaths, and hundreds and thousands of IDP
          • The second civil war, took place through 1983-2005, some of the consequences were 2 million deaths and 4 million displaced
            • Black Africans formed Sudan's people aberration army rose in rebellion when the govt cancelled autonomy arrangement
          • The war was resolved in 2005, when a peace agreement guaranteed southerners regional autonomy along with guaranteed representation in a regional power sharing govt
            • Layed down grounds for referendum
          • Violent/Peaceful
        • Challenges for newly independent country
          • 1/7 Children die before the age of 5
          • !/2 of the population is fed by aid agencys
          • Desperately poor country
          • Small active population
            • Low taxes and high dependency rate
          • High birth rate meaning a population explosion in the future - pressure on resources
          • Many living in tribal villages
          • Landmines - hard to remove as entangled in vegetation
          • Only 4% of land is cultivated, however there is much more potential,
          • 20,000 children forced to flee their homes during the war - orphans
      • CASE STUDY 3 : BASQUE
        • A group of people living in northern Spain and south western France
        • Reason for seperest  pressures
          • Historical claims to the land
          • Cultural - the baques already have their own culture and language
            • Their language ' Euskara ' has been banned from public signs and it is now illegal to teach in schools
              • During the time of the excecutions, no longer
            • War between the basques and home country, violent campaigns towards the police and security forces, as well as political/ governmental figures + buildings
          • Political - Nationalists have been executed or imprisoned
            • By Franco, leader of Spain until 1975
          • Geographical - peripheral position
        • Consequences
          • Political
            • A referendum that was held discovered that there was huge support for automony
            • A Basque parliament was therefore created
            • ETA ( terrorist group) has been formed - 800 people have been killed due to these attacks
              • Now cease fired but still want independence from France and Spain
              • December 2006, during peace taks, ETA car bombed a Madrid airport killing 2 people
        • A case study on regionalism rather than nationalism

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