Periodic Table

a

HideShow resource information
View mindmap
  • Periodic Table
    • How it is organised
      • The columns are called groups
        • The group number tells you the electrons in the outer shell
        • The elements in each group have similar properties
          • This is because the electrons in the outer shell control how it reacts
        • As you go down the group you can make predictions in the reactivity trends
      • The rows are called periods
        • Each new row represents another full shell of electrons
      • They are laid out in increasing atomic numbers.
      • The metals are on the left of the table and the non-metals are on the right
    • Metals and Non-metals
      • Most elements are metals
        • Metals form positive ions when they react
          • This is because they don't have to lose many electrons to get a full outer shell
      • Metals are on the left of the table and non-metals are on the right
      • Most metals are strong, malleable, good heat and electricity conductors and have high boiling and melting points
      • Transition metals are in the middle of the periodic table
        • They have the same properties of other metals
        • They can form  multiple ions which normal metals cannot
        • They are often coloured
        • They make good catalysts in reactions
    • Group 1 Elements
      • They are :
        • They are also known as the alkali metals
        • Lithium
        • Sodium
        • Potassium
        • Rubidium
        • Caesium
        • Francium
      • They all have one electron in the outer shell
        • This makes them very reactive because they easily form 1+ ions
        • They are soft and have a low density
        • As you go down the group...
          • Reactivity increases
            • The outer electron is more easily lost because the electron is further away from the nucleus so the attraction is weaker
          • Lower melting and boiling points
      • Reaction with water
        • React vigorously with water
          • Producing hydrogen gas and a metal hydroxide
            • A metal hydroxide is a salt that dissolves in water to make alkaline solutions
        • The more reactive the metal is the more violent the reaction
        • The further down the table the more energy is released
          • Potassium releases enough energy to ignite hydrogen
        • Lithium
          • Produces Lithium hydroxide and hydrogen
        • Sodium
          • Produces sodium hydroxide and hydrogen
        • Potassium
          • Produces potassium hydroxide and hydrogen(but it ignites it)
      • They only ever make ionic compounds which are usually white solids that dissolve in water to form colourless solutions
      • Reaction with chlorine
        • Group 1 reacts vigorously when heated in chlorine gas
          • This produces metal chloride salts
        • Lithium
          • Produces lithium chloride
        • Sodium
          • Produces sodiumchloride
        • Potassium
          • Produces potassium chloride
      • Reaction with oxygen
        • They react with oxygen to make a metal oxide which differs depending on the metal
          • Oxide - one oxygen atom
          • Peroxide- two oxygen atoms
          • Superoxide- three oxygen atoms
        • Reacting with oxygen is why group 1 metals tarnish in the air
        • Sodium
          • Makes a mixture of sodium oxide and sodium peroxide
        • Lithium
          • Makes lithium oxide
        • Potassium
          • Makes a mixture of potassium peroxide and potassium superoxide
    • Group 7 Elements
      • Known as the halogens
        • They are :
          • Fluorine
          • Chlorine
          • Bromine
          • Iodine
          • Astatine
        • They all exist in pairs of atoms
      • They are all non-metals with coloured vapours
        • Fluorine- Very reactive poisonous yellow gas
        • Chlorine- Fairly reactive poisonous dense green gas
        • Bromine- Dense poisonous, red-brown volatile liquid
        • Iodine- Dark grey crystalline solid or a purple vapour
      • As you go down Group 7 they...
        • Are less reactive
          • It is harder to gain an extra electron because the shells are further away from the nucleus
        • Higher melting and boiling points
      • They bond  by ionic bonding and covalent bonding
        • Ionic bonding with metals
          • They form 1- ions called halides
        • Covalent bonding with other non-metals
      • Displacementreactions can happen between a more reactive halogen and the salt of a less reactive one
        • Eg. chlorine reacts with potassium iodide and will displace iodine to make iodine and potassium chloride
    • Group 0 elements
      • Also known as noble gases
        • They are:
          • Helium
          • Neon
          • Argon
          • Krypton
          • Radon
      • They have a full outer shell
        • This means that they don't want to give up or gain electrons
          • This means that they are inert- unreactive
            • This also means that they are non-flammable
      • As you go down the group the boiling points increase
        • Because more electrons in the atom leads to greater intermolecular forces which need to be overcome
      • They are monatomic gases- travel alone.
      • Colourless gases at room temperature.
    • Transitionmetals
      • Comparison to Group 1
        • Group 1 metals are more reactive than transition metals
        • Transition metals are denser, stronger and harder than group 1.
        • They have lower melting points
          • For example manganese melts at 2000C but sodium melts at 98C
          • Except for mercury which is a liquid at room temperature
      • These are metals in the middle of the periodic table
      • Can form ions  with different charges
        • Eg. Coppercan form Cu+ and Cu2+ ions
      • They are often used as catalysts
      • They form coloured compounds
        • Eg. Potassium chromate(VI) is yellow and potassium(VII) manganate is purple

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Chemistry resources:

See all Chemistry resources »See all Chemical patterns and reactivity series resources »