memory

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  • Separate stores
    • Milner's case study of HM
      • Supporting the idea that ST and LT memory are separate store
      • Evidence that the mechanism allowing STM to transfer info to the LTM was not functioning
      • He had anterograde amnesia (he was no longer able to produce new LT memories
      • His STM was unaffected
      • HM suffered from years of epilepsy following a childhood accident
        • After having brain surgery to help control it his memory was impaired
    • Glanzer and Cunitz 1966
      • Aim; To investigate the existence of two separate stores
      • Method: Participants were presented with a list of words, one at a time, then had to recall in any oder
        • frequency of recall for each word was recorded
      • Finding: Ppts best remembered words from the start of the list (primary effect) and the end of the list (recency effect)
      • Conclusions; This was called the serial position effect which occurs because the first words in the list are best rehearsed and transferred to LTM
        • The last words are in STM when you start recalling the list
      • Evaluation: Suggested that rather than being held in a separate STM, recent items are more readily recalled because they are more distinctive
    • Multi-store Memory
      • Memory
        • Working Memory Model
          • Shallice and Warrington's (1970) case study of KF
            • Following a motorbike accident KF was left with a severely impaired STM.
              • Shallice and Warrington reported that KF's deficit in STM was for verbal info, however his STM for visual and acoustic infor was normal
            • This suggests the existence of more than one type of STM and this it's not just a unitary store: supporting the WMM
          • Hitch and Baddeley (1976)
            • Aim: To investigate the nature of WM using dual tasks
            • Findings: Task 1 was impaired when Task 2 involved both the PL and the CE whereas performance on Task 1 was the same when using just the PL or no extra task at all
            • conclusion: Doing two tasks that involve the same component of WM causes difficulty whereas when different components are used, performance is unaffected
          • Baddeley et al (1973)
            • Method: Ppts asked to track a moving spot of light with a pointer (visual task) at the same time as either performing a task that required them to visualise and mentally follow the borders of a capital letter F or carrying out a verbal task
            • Findings: tracking of the spot light was poor in the 'F' condition but barely affected by the verbal task
            • Conclusion: Supports the idea that the visuo-spatial sketchpad is a separate slave system because when already occupied with the tracking task, equal attention could not be given to that and the 'F' task
              • Whereas the verbal task uses the phonological loop so there was no conflict
  • Milner's case study of HM
    • Supporting the idea that ST and LT memory are separate store
    • Evidence that the mechanism allowing STM to transfer info to the LTM was not functioning
    • He had anterograde amnesia (he was no longer able to produce new LT memories
    • His STM was unaffected
    • HM suffered from years of epilepsy following a childhood accident
      • After having brain surgery to help control it his memory was impaired
  • People he met and everyday events after surgery were experienced as new to him over and over again
    • Method: Ppfts were given two tasks to do at the same time
      • Hitch and Baddeley (1976)
        • Aim: To investigate the nature of WM using dual tasks
        • Findings: Task 1 was impaired when Task 2 involved both the PL and the CE whereas performance on Task 1 was the same when using just the PL or no extra task at all
        • conclusion: Doing two tasks that involve the same component of WM causes difficulty whereas when different components are used, performance is unaffected
      • Task 1: verbal reasoning task- relies on the central executive
      • Task 2: involved the phonological loop (PL) or the PL and the central executive.
    • Aim: To investigate the nature of the visuo-spatial sketchpad using dual tasks
      • Baddeley et al (1973)
        • Method: Ppts asked to track a moving spot of light with a pointer (visual task) at the same time as either performing a task that required them to visualise and mentally follow the borders of a capital letter F or carrying out a verbal task
        • Findings: tracking of the spot light was poor in the 'F' condition but barely affected by the verbal task
        • Conclusion: Supports the idea that the visuo-spatial sketchpad is a separate slave system because when already occupied with the tracking task, equal attention could not be given to that and the 'F' task
          • Whereas the verbal task uses the phonological loop so there was no conflict

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