Research methods

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  • Research methods
    • Content analysis Qualitative
      • Main Method
      • Counting the number of times a word, image or category appears
      • Majorie Ferguson Forever feminine (1983)
        • Counting feminine themes in a popular women's mag
      • Popular- Straightforward-Cheap-Easy
      • Representative- Generalizable
      • Wayne et al (2007)
        • 2130 news items
        • Representation of the youth
        • Quick, cheap and easy
          • Positivists see as an advantage
      • Advantage-No interaction with respondents
        • Unobtrusive and ethical
        • No chance of interviewer effect or bias= Valid
      • Problem with validity
        • Researcher's interpret= unconsciously biad
        • Best criticised GUMG for being bias- set out to prove a point
    • Experiment
      • Clearly scientific
        • Favoured by positivists
      • Control over the laboratory environment to establish cause and effect
      • Bandura
      • Criticism
        • Lack validity as carried out in an artificial  setting, not real
        • Overcome by using field experiments
      • Lull used field experiments, do not involve informed consent. Unethical use of deception and manipulation
    • Semiology
      • Science of signs
        • Colour red in British society symbolises a number of things, danger, stop. promiscuity and passion
          • Part of our culture, learnt and communicated through socialisation
      • Symbolic signs and codes underpin all forms of behaviour and language
      • Semiotic analysis
        • Undercover ideological messages
      • Concepts of  beauty myths and male gaze were under covered by feminists using semiology
      • Criticised- unscientific. Relies heavily on interpretation of the researcher
        • Lacks objectivity and validty
        • Difficult to repeat as researchers and audience may interpret the data differently
        • semiotic analysis, Beyonce' devil worshiper


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