Self-sustaining beliefs 

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  • Self-sustaining beliefs
    • Circularity
      • Each idea in the system is explained in terms of another
    • Subsidiary explanations
      • Explaining away an idea e.g. if the oracle fails it may be explained away due to incorrect use of the benge
    • Denial of legitimacy to rivals
      • Reject alternative worldviews by refusing to grant any legitimacy to their basic assumptions e.g. creationism rejects evolutionists' knowledge
  • Polanyi 1958


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