Language and power

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  • Created by: Sara.N
  • Created on: 10-03-14 19:27
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  • Language and power
    • type of power
      • political power
        • power held by those with the backing of the law
      • personal power
        • power held by individuals as a result of their roles in organisations
      • social group power
        • power held as a result of being a member of a dominant social group
      • instrumental power
        • power used to maintain and enforce authority
      • influential power
        • power used to influence or persuade others
    • Fairclough (2001)
      • power in discourse
        • the ways in which power is manifested in situations through language
      • power behind discourse
        • the focus on the social and ideological reasons behind enactment of power
          • ideology
            • a set of beliefs,attitudes or a world view held by an individual or groups
            • members resources
              • the vast amount of background knoweldge and information that readers use in order to interpret texts and which may be explicitly drawn upon by text producers
      • Synthetic Personalisation
        • the way in which advertising and other forms of communication use personalised language, to construct a relationship between text producer and reciever
          • example: the use of the second personal pronoun, 'you'
    • Wareing (1999)
    • power in written texts
      • epistemic modality
        • constructions that express degree of possiblity, probablity and certainty
          • example: shall and will
      • deontic modality
        • constructions that express degree of necessity and obligations
          • example: may, must, must not
    • power in advertising
      • building the consumer
        • placing the text reciever in a desired position in relation to the advertiser and advertised product
          • effect: reciever feels special and like an ideal consumer of the product and in agreement with the ideologies that it presents
    • power in spoken discourse
      • power asymmetry
        • a marked difference in power status of individuals involved in the conversation
          • this power relationship leads to an UNEQUAL ENCOUNTER
            • where one speaker is seen as the powerful participant and the other as the less powerful participant
            • in unequal encounters the traditional turntaking do not operate
              • INSTEAD...powerful particpants placea CONSTRAINTS
                • ways in which the powerful participant may block or control the contributions of less powerful participant
                  • example: controlling the amount of time less powerful participant speaks OR by interrupting
      • Goffman- Brown and Levinson
          • Face- 2 types: positive and negative politness strategies
            • positive Face
              • the need to feel valued, like and appreciated
            • negative face
              • the need to have freedom of thought action and not feel imposed on
            • Face threatening Act (FTA)
              • a communicative act that threatens someones's positive or negative face needs
          • repressive discourse strategy
            • a more indirect way of excersing power and control through conversational constraints
          • oppressive discource strategy
            • linguistic behaviour that is open in its excersing of power and control
  • political power
    • power held by those with the backing of the law


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