Section 1: Cell Structure

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  • Section 1: Cell Structure
    • Cells and Organelles
      • two Main Types of organism
        • Prokaryotic
          • are smaller ans simpler single celled organisms
            • extremely small cells 2 micrometers
            • DNA is Circular
            • there is NO nucleus
            • Cell wall is made of a polysaccharide
            • very few organelles NO mitochondia
            • Small Ribosomes
    • Organelles Working Together
      • 1) Proteins are made at the RIBOSOMES
        • 2)the Ribosomes on the RER make proteins that are excreted or attached to the cell membrane. the free ribosomes in the cytoplasm make proteins that stay in the cytoplasm
          • 3) New proteins produced at the RER are folded and processed in the RER
            • 4) Then they're transported from the endoplasmic reticulum to the golgi apparatus in vesiccles
              • 5) at the golgi apparatus, the proteins may undergo further processing
                • 6) the proteins enter more vesicles to be transported around the cell
    • Microscopes
      • Light
        • Light Microscopes use Light
        • They have a lower resolution than electron microscopes
          • 0.2 micrometers
        • the maximum useful magnification is x1500
      • Electron
        • Transmission Electron Microscope
          • use eletromagnets to focus a beam of electrons
          • maximum magnification is more than x1 000 000
        • Scanning Electron Microscope
          • scan a beam of electrons accross the specimen
          • maximum resolution is 0.005 micrometer
          • maximum magnification is less than x 1 000 000
      • magnification equation
      • Stains
        • for the light microscope this means using some kind of dye,
          • common stains are methylene blue and eosin.
            • the stain is taken up by some parts of the object more than others - the contrast makes the different parts show up
  • Eukaryotic
    • two Main Types of organism
      • Prokaryotic
        • are smaller ans simpler single celled organisms
          • extremely small cells 2 micrometers
          • DNA is Circular
          • there is NO nucleus
          • Cell wall is made of a polysaccharide
          • very few organelles NO mitochondia
          • Small Ribosomes
    • are complex and include all animal and plant cells
      • Animal cells
      • Plant cells
        • have the same organelles as animal cells with a few extra
          • Cell Wall
          • Vacuole
          • Chloroplasts
  • Nucleus
    • makes
      • Ribosome
        • Attached to RER or Free Floating
          • RER
    • Cytoplasm
      • Attached to RER or Free Floating
        • RER
      • Lysosome
      • Vesicle
        • Formed by endoplasmic reticuilum and golgi apparatus or the cell surface membrane
          • SER
          • Golgi Apparatus
            • makes
              • Lysosome
          • Plasma (Cell Surface) Membrane
      • Mitochondrion
      • Golgi Apparatus
        • makes
        • SER
      • contains
        • Nucleolus
        • Nuclear Envelope
    • fro the electron microscope, objects are dipped in a solution of heavy metals. the metal ions scatter the electrons, again creating contrast
      • the stain is taken up by some parts of the object more than others - the contrast makes the different parts show up

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