Civil Rights in America: Section 1: 1945-55

A mindmap outlining the key points (+ and -) needed for all of the factors within this time period. 

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  • Created by: Noid
  • Created on: 25-10-12 21:04
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  • SECTION 1: 1945-1955
    • WWII
      • Blacks migrate North into towns and cities
        • Higher pay than farm labourers
        • Little prospect for working in more highly skilled jobs
        • Developed own communities and cultural life, which centred on churches and other institutions such as trade unions and the NAACP
        • Urbanisation helped them work together to fight for their rights, as they were gathered closer together into larger communities
      • Saw effects of Nazi racism in Europe and were inspired to defeat racism at home
      • Black service men were treated with disrespect and in some cases beaten by whites for wearing their uniforms
      • 1944 GI Bill of Rights, provided education grants for ex-servicemen. Many blacks were able to attend college now
      • In 1946, Truman expressed his anger at the treatment of black ex-servicemen, which could be argued as the reason for him wanting to help the Civil Rights Movement
      • The Government wanted to disassociate itself from the Nazis and their racism
      • Membership for Civil Rights orgs. dramatically increased by the end of the war
    • 'To Secure These Rights'
      • Truman wanted improve the status of Bblaccks, as he saw that the treatnment towards them was poor and he realised the importance of black voters
      • When the Cold War started in 1945, Truman  needed to make the Soviet Union to allow free and fair elections that they occupied. He realised that Civil Rights had to be achieved in the US before they could criticise other countries
      • The Report called for anti-lynching laws
      • Fair Employment laws to be tightened to prevent racial discrimination
      • Federal government to take action to ensure black people could vote in all elections
      • Action to prevent police brutality on blacks
      • However, there was no immediate, short-term change at all
      • Congress opposed such reforms, which stopped the progress
      • Executive order
        • 9980 Fair EmploymentBoard
        • 10308 withheld defence contracts from firms which practised discimination
        • 9981 tacial equality in the armed forces
    • NAACP
      • Got the Government to honour the 14th and 1th Amendments and to abolish the Jim Crow laws
      • Provided funding and lawyers for individuals to bring cases against the authorities
      • Raised awareness for their cause
      • Only believed that change would come in the Supreme Court. Many  thought that their methods were too slow
      • Smith V Allwright 1944
        • Ruled that white-only primary elections violated the 15th Amendment
      • Morgan V. Virginia 1946
        • Ruled that segregation on interstate buses broke the 14th Amendment
      • Sweatt V. Painter 1950
        • Ruled that black schools were inferior and had poor facilities, and allowed Sweatt to attend Texas University
      • Brown V. Board 1954
        • Ruled that segregation in schools and the principle of 'separate but equal' was unconstitutional
        • Progress of change was slow as many opposed it and there was no timescale on which the desegregation  had to happen
        • No de jure change
          • Ruled that black schools were inferior and had poor facilities, and allowed Sweatt to attend Texas University
          • Ruled that segregation on interstate buses broke the 14th Amendment
          • Ruled that white-only primary elections violated the 15th Amendment
          • Ruled that segregation in schools and the principle of 'separate but equal' was unconstitutional
    • CORE
      • Journey of Reconciliation
        • Involved half black and half white
        • Revealed that the Southern states were ignoring the Supreme Court's ruling against segregation on interstate buses
        • Failed to make any changes
        • Provided publicity for CORE
        • Met with violence
  • Higher pay than farm labourers
  • Blacks migrate North into towns and cities
    • Little prospect for working in more highly skilled jobs
    • Developed own communities and cultural life, which centred on churches and other institutions such as trade unions and the NAACP
    • Urbanisation helped them work together to fight for their rights, as they were gathered closer together into larger communities
  • Truman wanted improve the status of Bblaccks, as he saw that the treatnment towards them was poor and he realised the importance of black voters

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