Section A - Democracy & Participation (Incomplete)

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  • Component 1: Democracy & Participation
    • Features of Direct Democracy.
      • Everyone has the right speak and vote.
      • Increases participation and turnout.
      • Avoids dictatorship because there no singular person.
      • One man, one vote.
      • Local councils and districts to govern themselves with the popular vote.
      • Increases majority happiness.
      • Relies on people understanding what they are voting  on.
      • Rejects the views of the majority, gives them no representation.
      • relies on yes/no debates.
      • Neglects religion, race and culture in modern society.
      • Requires all people to collectively vote in one place at one time.
    • Features of Representative Democracy.
      • Highly educated representatives.
      • MP's focus all their time on constituencies.
      • MP's are responsible for minority;s, therefore majority rule is not as simple.
      • Representatives can mediate between the different groups. e.g animal rights groups, immigration groups.
      • Efficient governments.
      • Benefits the interests of the people.
      • Representatives cannot represent everyone.
      • MP's stand for political parties and follow the party line.
      • Relies on MP's accurately representing their community - doesn't always happen.
      • Low turnouts due to many people unrepresented.
      • Often they are from privileged backgrounds, and privately educated.
      • Lack of choice with representative, voters are forced into a 'best of bad bunch'
    • Suffragettes/ suffragists
      • Women Suffrage
        • 1832 - Women campaigners asked for wider male votes to include females.
          • Radical lawyer, Richard Pankhurst attempted to extend women rights in court, but was denied and ironically men gained extra voting rights in the same year
        • 1884 - Extended male rights to vote consequently formed a rebellious womens rights movement, this led to more votes directed at the independent labour party.
      • Suffragettes
        • 1903 - Formation of WSAPM by Emmeline Pankhurst, her daughters and other militants.
        • They adopted a violent approach, their first incident was a liberal meeting in 1905. In addition they also had many incidents that clashed with police and terrorised London for years.
        • 1906-14 The Gettes and gists both campaigned for female suffrage, they worked together a few times but had clashes mostly as they took their violence too far.
      • Suffragists
        • 1897 - Formation of NUWSS.
          • They believed in constitutional methods of protests, they were prepared to sacrifice their freedom for the movement.
          • Methods included; petitions, meetings and publications.
          • Progress was slow, and indications were sent to parliament but was ignored.
        • On the other hand, they were scared that allowing all women would damage voting outcomes and alow the conservative party to win.
    • Franchise development from 1832.
      • The first reform act - Representation of the people
        • Disenfranchised 57 boroughs and reduced 31 to one MP.
        • Small landowners, tenant farmers and shopkeepers became apart of the franchises' property qualification.
        • Created 67 new constituencies
        • Gave the vote to those who payed £10 or more in yearly rental.
      • Women were again exluded from the vote, as a voter was described as a male voter.
      • Change wasn't favoured as property qualification still restricted working votes, however it shed light on future change.
      • Modern Franchise
        • 1911 - Parliament Act. - restricted power of the house of lords and replaced their veto with the ability to only delay bills in the HOC for 2 years.
        • 1918 - Representation Act - WW1 saw a need for change, therefore all men over 21 and women over 30 were given the right to vote.
        • 1928 - Representation act - Women given access to the franchise equal to men.
        • 1969 - Representation act - both men and women over 18 were allowed to vote.
        • Today the franchise includes; UK and Irish citizens - Common wealth members - UK nations abroad for less than 15 years.
      • THE RIGHT TO VOTE.
    • Pressure Groups.
      • Formal or informal group who further the interests of specific sections of society and or promote issues by influence.
      • Functional Representation - represent specific groups on specific issues.
      • Pluralist Democracy - people have the right to promote their ideas.
      • Ability to lobby for change.
      • No political power, no responsibility,don't produce any policies, aim to gain awareness and support and don't have a behaviour conduct.
      • Case studies for Pressure Groups.
        • The Countryside Alliance; formed to promote the British Field Sports of shooting fishing and hunting. Created to 'Give rural Britain a vote'. Lately they fought the passing of the 2004 Hunting ban, lobbying for it repeal.
          • They have over 100,000 members and 350,000 affiliates, ran by Richard Burge, a labour party member.
          • Protested in London, Westminister with over 250,000 people involved. They have had two key influences on firearm laws. As well amendments to the policing and crime Bills by the House of Lords.
          • They also backed Ted Hugh's  'Fish Fight' campaign. In hopes to ban 'fish discards' as well as the fox hunting
        • Cancer Research; a charity that raise awareness and are currently researching ways to help cure cancer. The promotional pressure group have industrial partners, from local, small to medium sized enterprises. Their mission statement is to save lives, 'to bring forward the day when all cancers are cured'.
          • 2015 - MP's voted in favour of plain, standard cigarette packs, to dis-encourage younger people to smoke. In addition, a year latter selling branded cigarette packets became illegal.
          • However, people are still dying from cancer, therefore they haven't fulfilled their mission, having over 164,000 deaths alone in the UK. As well as the struggle for funding as people believe the charity is a waste of time due to the lack of progress.
          • Lastly, cancer research aims for the future to make the cure a more promising reality by increasing its efforts.
      • Sectional Groups: Promote values and ensure groups are represented and treated fairly. E.g British Medical Association, National Union of Teachers.
      • Promotional Groups ; promote and fix the issues for the entire society. E.g Campaigners for Nuclear Disarmament, Fathers For Justice.
      • Dual-Function Groups; Long term benefit for all, but short term for one specific group. E.g Cancer Research, RSPCA.
      • Insider Groups; groups 'inside' the government work to craft new legislation. E.g British National Association, Trade Union Congress.
      • Outsider Groups; aim to persuade the gov but have no affiliation, therefore enjoy more freedom than insider groups. They either don't want to be inside or haven't been invited. E.g Countryside Alliance, Environmental Groups.
      • New Social Movements; Broad and informal groups who focus on a particular issue. E.g Black Lives Matter, Occupied London.
      • Lobbying, Think thanks & Corporations.
        • Thinks tanks are bodies of experts bought together to investigate and offer solutions to economic, social or political issues. They often provide solutions to problems and are credible sources.
        • Pieces from think tanks are often seen in newspapers, reports and other media televisions.
        • Independent Tanks; Social Market Foundation and New Policy Institute.
        • Centre Left Wing Tanks; Fabian Society and Institute for Public Policy Research.
        • Centre Right Wing Tanks; Adam Smith Institute and The Centre for Social Justice.
        • Lobby is considered to be someone who is paid by clients to seek  to influence government or parliament on their behalf, particularly when legislation is being considered. They provide influence on legislation although it is very undemocratic.
        • Lobbying examples; Greenpeace or Advisory committees.
        • Corporations are in government circles which is an area of concern for pro-democracy campaigners. These are very undemocratic as they an influence legislation and tax plans for their own benefit only due to their influence and profits.
        • In 2016 Secretary of Business, Gregg Clark reported the BSDA expressed its opposition to the sugar drink tax, however they followed the plan eventually.
    • Lobbying, Think thanks & Corporations.
      • Thinks tanks are bodies of experts bought together to investigate and offer solutions to economic, social or political issues. They often provide solutions to problems and are credible sources.
      • Pieces from think tanks are often seen in newspapers, reports and other media televisions.
      • Independent Tanks; Social Market Foundation and New Policy Institute.
      • Centre Left Wing Tanks; Fabian Society and Institute for Public Policy Research.
      • Centre Right Wing Tanks; Adam Smith Institute and The Centre for Social Justice.
      • Lobby is considered to be someone who is paid by clients to seek  to influence government or parliament on their behalf, particularly when legislation is being considered. They provide influence on legislation although it is very undemocratic.
      • Lobbying examples; Greenpeace or Advisory committees.
      • Corporations are in government circles which is an area of concern for pro-democracy campaigners. These are very undemocratic as they an influence legislation and tax plans for their own benefit only due to their influence and profits.
      • In 2016 Secretary of Business, Gregg Clark reported the BSDA expressed its opposition to the sugar drink tax, however they followed the plan eventually.
    • Civil Liberties
      • Human Rights  in the UK are governed by the European Convention of Human Rights - but when Brexit is finalised the UK can decide their own rights.

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