Second Chechen War

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  • Second Chechen War
    • History
      • Chechen's began to raid neighboring Dagestan
        • They killed and kidnaps thousands of ethnic Russians
          • This led to Russia sealing the border
      • Russian population was more open to military operations due to terror attacks from neighboring Muslim countries
        • Putin presented the operation as an anti-terror campaign
          • This allowed him to control the narrative of the invasion
            • This helped the morale of the Russian army as they believed they were defending Russia
      • Apartment bombings in September 1999 were the deciding factor in a Russian invasion
        • The Chechen's were blamed despite the evidence being debatable
    • Strategy
      • Putin gained the support of local clans in Chechnya
        • For example, the Kadyrov's (who are now president)
        • These clans organised private armies and started a pro-Russian insurgency
      • Putin knew how much the media could affect the war effort
        • As a result, the flow of information out of Chechnya was monitored and foreign journalists were advised to stay away
          • This helped Putin mold Chechnya into a terrorist state
            • Russia then claimed it was fighting on the interests of the international community
      • The change in strategy meant that Chechnya was isolated politically
        • The rebels had no sympathy
        • Media had prepared population for casualties
        • However the death toll presented was less than the actual figures
          • Mercenaries had made up 15% of Russia's army
    • Fighting
      • Russia avoided urban combat
        • They only engaged if it was a winnable situation
        • This robbed the Chechen's the choice of when to engage
      • Russia made use of its massive fire power
        • This made it difficult for rebels to keep a hold of Grozny
          • Russia leveled the city and destroyed its infrastructure
            • Chechen tunnels were destroyed and communication was limited
      • Most of the population had fled cities
        • This meant that the guerrilla soldiers couldn't blend
          • This also starved the Chechen rebels of their supplies
      • By 2000, most Chechen's were against the war
        • Villagers began to side with the Russians
        • In February 2000, Russia had taken Grozny and the rebels fled to the mountains
          • However they had now lost their influence over civilians
        • Russia had secured direct rule in May 2000

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