How Science and Technology affected developments in Surgery

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  • science & technology
    • experiments were undertaken to find the the most effective anaesthetic
    • knowledge of chemistry helped to develop techniques for storing blood to use in blood transfusions
      • rous and turner's discovery of adding citrate glucose to blood to store it for longer.
      • lewishon's discovery of adding sodium citrate to blood sto stop it from clotting
    • Wilhelm roentgen's x-ray machine.
    • chloroform inhaler by John snow and carbolic spray, to control dosage
      • steam sterilizer by Robert Koch and the carbolic spray helped to reduce infection
    • hypodermic needle in 1853 by Alexander Wood made it possible to measure the withdrawal of blood and helped to control the dosage given!
    • more powerful microscopes to see germs that cause infection and illnesses - helped prove  Pasteur's germ theory and Lister's ideas


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