Schizophrenia biological and sociocultural explanations

Summarised mind map on the subtypes, biological explanations (genetics, dopamine & enlarged ventricles) and socio-cultural explanations (double-bind, labelling & expressed emotion) with some A02 points

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  • Schizophrenia
    • Subtypes
      • Disorganised
        • Catatonic
          • Paranoid
            • Undifferentiated
              • Residual
                • Subtypes
                  • Disorganised
                    • Catatonic
                      • Paranoid
                        • Undifferentiated
                          • Residual
      • BIOLOGICAL EXPLANATION
        • GENETICS
          • Gottesmen and Shield
            • MZ: 48%  DZ:17%, One parent: 6%,
              • Should be 100% suggesting other factors must be involved
          • Heshon
            • Group 2 - bio mum doesn't have S
        • ENLARGED VENTRICLES
          • Lieberman, proposed that enlarged ventricles could explain S as they cause damage to the brain
            • Associated with -ive symptoms
          • Weydant
            • Used advanced scanning techniques to show enlarged ventricles in brains of S
              • Good scientific evidence
        • DOPAMINE
          • iverson
            • Post mortem studies found people with S, had hgher levels of dopamine than people without S
              • Death could have caused higher levels of dopaminee
      • SOCIO-CULTURAL EXPLANATION
        • LABELLING
          • Theory denies any existence of illness and so offers no treatment
          • SHEFF - believes that when a person is labelled with s,, this then inluences how socitey treats this person & so affects their behaviour
          • ROSENHAN
            • 8 healthy people make appointments
              • All 8 diagnosed with S, once institutionalised acted normal
                • Average stay was 19 days - in remission
                  • Unethical (misleads health professionals)
                    • Ignores bio explanation evidence
                  • Shows how a label is hard to change
        • EXPRESSED EMOTION
          • Families with high show hostility, high disapproval, not tolerant of behaviour & very critical
            • more likely to lead to relapse as patient feels trapped
              • & like an outsider due to excessive attention
    • Diagnosing Issues
      • Self report
        • Diagnosing Issues
        • Wrong treatment via misdiagnosis
          • Self report
          • Labelling
            • Gottesmen and Shield
              • MZ: 48%  DZ:17%, One parent: 6%,
                • Should be 100% suggesting other factors must be involved
            • Heshon
              • Group 2 - bio mum doesn't have S
            • Group 1 - bio mum had S
              • 16%
              • 0%
                • Genetics does play a role in S
                  • Multifactoral: S is caused by several genes in chromosomes 1, 2, 5 & 11, which supports genetic explanation
                • GENETICS
                  • Multifactoral: S is caused by several genes in chromosomes 1, 2, 5 & 11, which supports genetic explanation
                    • iverson
                      • Post mortem studies found people with S, had hgher levels of dopamine than people without S
                        • Death could have caused higher levels of dopaminee
                    • Supported by drug treatments
                      • BIOLOGICAL EXPLANATION
                        • ENLARGED VENTRICLES
                          • Lieberman, proposed that enlarged ventricles could explain S as they cause damage to the brain
                            • Associated with -ive symptoms
                          • Weydant
                            • Used advanced scanning techniques to show enlarged ventricles in brains of S
                              • Good scientific evidence
                        • DOPAMINE
                        • SOCIO-CULTURAL EXPLANATION
                          • LABELLING
                            • Theory denies any existence of illness and so offers no treatment
                            • SHEFF - believes that when a person is labelled with s,, this then inluences how socitey treats this person & so affects their behaviour
                            • ROSENHAN
                              • 8 healthy people make appointments
                                • All 8 diagnosed with S, once institutionalised acted normal
                                  • Average stay was 19 days - in remission
                                    • Unethical (misleads health professionals)
                                      • Ignores bio explanation evidence
                                    • Shows how a label is hard to change
                          • EXPRESSED EMOTION
                            • Families with high show hostility, high disapproval, not tolerant of behaviour & very critical
                              • more likely to lead to relapse as patient feels trapped
                                • & like an outsider due to excessive attention
                        • DOUBLE-BIND
                          • Child is placed in a “no-win” situation by one or both parents. This situation is where the child will be told or given one thing but another action will conflict and contradict the first action.
                          • Batesons double bind theory was neveer followed up by research
                            • Child doesn't know how to respond and is dependent on the mother so cannot leave.
                        • Child is placed in a “no-win” situation by one or both parents. This situation is where the child will be told or given one thing but another action will conflict and contradict the first action.
                        • A mothers tells her child that she loves him but turns away in disgust
                          • Child doesn't know how to respond and is dependent on the mother so cannot leave.
                        • Can explain how -ive symptoms develop
                        • Cannot explain how +ive symptoms develop
                        • Batesons double bind theory was neveer followed up by research
                          • Lacks empirical evidence
                          • Hostility - neg attitdue as family feels the patient is choosing not to get better & that the disorder is controllable
                            • Nomura et al
                              • When a patient does relapse, they are back in the highly active phase of schizophrenia
                                • Family therapy which aims at reducing EE results in lower relapse rates
                            • usually positive symptoms
                            • CAUSALITY
                            • CAUSALITY
                            • CAUSALITY
                            • Family therapy which aims at reducing EE results in lower relapse rates

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