Schizophrenia- Explanations and Treatment

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  • Schizophrenia (Sz)
    • Biological
      • Explanation
        • Gottesman and Shields
          • higher concordance rates Mz (58%) than Dz (12%) twins
            • ? genetics plays a part Sz
        • Genetics + Trigger= Sz
      • Treatment
    • Symptoms (ICD)
      • delusions of control
      • catatonic behaviour
  • Behavioural
    • Schizophrenia (Sz)
      • Biological
        • Explanation
          • Gottesman and Shields
            • higher concordance rates Mz (58%) than Dz (12%) twins
              • ? genetics plays a part Sz
          • Genetics + Trigger= Sz
        • Treatment
      • Symptoms (ICD)
        • delusions of control
        • catatonic behaviour
    • Explanation
      • Liberman
        • No reinforcement for social skills
          • ? shows operant conditioning
    • Treatment
      • Paul and  Lentz
        • social learning
          • only used when the Sz person is institutionalised
          • token economy system  w/ rewards approx. 85% of time
  • Cognitive
    • Explanation
      • Maher
        • delusion thinking result of perceptual disorder
  • Treatment
    • Paul and  Lentz
      • social learning
        • only used when the Sz person is institutionalised
        • token economy system  w/ rewards approx. 85% of time
  • Explanation
    • Maher
      • delusion thinking result of perceptual disorder
  • Treatment
    • Cognitive
      • Sensky et al
        • Cognitive Behaviour therapy (CBT)
          • patient helped to change beliefs  & taught coping strategies to deal w/ voices
          • effective for treating +ve & -ve symptoms in those who are resistant to drug treatment
        • found reduction in +ve & -ve symptoms & depression
    • Liberman
      • No reinforcement for social skills
        • ? shows operant conditioning
    • Kane et al
      • drug therapy
      • symptoms of Sz can be effectively treated with fluphenazine
        • however causes toxic side effects in some people
    • Also
      • ECT
        • only short term fix
        • only used on those that drug therapy does not work on
      • Prefrontal leucotomy
    • ECT
      • only short term fix
      • only used on those that drug therapy does not work on
    • Prefrontal leucotomy
    • thought echo, insertion or withdrawal
      • persistant delusions and hallucinations
        • Incoherence or irrelevant speech
          • marked apathy
            • symptoms of Sz can be effectively treated with fluphenazine
              • however causes toxic side effects in some people
            • engaging w/ patient
              • Cognitive Behaviour therapy (CBT)
                • patient helped to change beliefs  & taught coping strategies to deal w/ voices
                • effective for treating +ve & -ve symptoms in those who are resistant to drug treatment
            • developing normalising rationale
              • making conversation
                • rewarded for behaviour that increased ability to function in outside world
                  • personal care
              • 92.5% of this group released  BUT only 10.7% released into independent living

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