Schizophrenia

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  • Schizophrenia
    • Diagnosis and Classification
      • Positive symptoms
        • Hallucinations
        • Delusions and paranoia
      • Negative symptoms
        • Avolition
        • Speech poverty
      • Evaluation
        • Reliability (inter-rater)
        • Validity (criterion) Cheniaux et al.
        • Co-morbidity (multiple conditions)
        • Symptom overalap
        • Gender bias and cultural bias
    • Biological explanantions
      • Genetic basis
        • Families
        • Candidate genes
      • Evaluation
        • Multiple sources of evidence for genetic susceptibility (twin and adoption studies)
        • Mixed evidence for the dopamine hypothesis
        • Correlation vs causation
        • Mutation
      • The Dopamine hypothesis
      • Neural correlates
        • Avolition and the ventral striatum
        • Hallucinations and the superior temporal gyrus and anterior cingulate gyrus.
    • Psychological explanations
      • Family dysfunction
        • Schizophrenogenic mother
        • Double-bind theory
        • Expressed emotion
      • Cognitive
        • Metarepresentation (refection)
        • Central control
      • Evalutation
        • Family dysfunction support (insecure attachment and abuse)
        • Parent blaming!!!
        • Information processing support evidence (stroop test)
        • Direction of causality
        • Combination of biological and psychological explanations.
          • Evaluation
            • Multiple sources of evidence for genetic susceptibility (twin and adoption studies)
            • Mixed evidence for the dopamine hypothesis
            • Correlation vs causation
            • Mutation
    • Biological therapies
      • Chlorprozamine
      • Clozapine
      • Risperidone
      • Evalutation
        • Evidence for effectiveness
          • Meltzer et al: Clozapine effective in 30-50% of treatment-resistant cases
        • Serious side effects
          • Clozapine and agranulocytosis
        • Depends on the dopamine hypothesis
        • Chemical cosh argument
    • Psychological therapies
      • CBT
      • Family therapy
        • Form a therapeutic alliance
        • Improving families' beliefs and behaviour towards schiz
      • Token economies
      • Evaluation
        • Effectiveness evidence
          • Jauhar et al reviewed 34 CBT studies
        • Improving life quality but not a cure
        • Ethical issues
          • Token economies and different symptom serverity
        • Lack of control groups
    • Interactionist approach
      • The diathesis-stress model
      • CBT and drug therapy
      • Evaluation
        • Evidence
          • Tienari et al (19,000 Finnish children with schiz histories vs control, adoption parenting studies)
        • Diathesis-stress model may be overly simple
        • Combined treatment evidence
          • Tarrier et al (315 patients randomly allocated, combined showed lower symptom levels but no change in relapses)

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