S&P L12-13 (BIRMINGHAM POST-WAR)

  • Created by: Hadley023
  • Created on: 19-03-19 11:33
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  • Post-War Birmingham
    • Industrial decline
      • Prosperous between 1950s-1960s. Unemployed below 1%.
      • 1970-1983 - earnings dropped from highest in UK to almost the lowest.
      • 1982 - employed at 19.4%.
      • Industrial geography of the city changed.
    • Economic change
      • Global recessions in 1970s (oil crisis of 1973).
      • Birmingham's traditional industries were already suffering from overseas competition from TNCs in countries with lower production costs.
      • Global shift along with the oil crisis was very detrimental.
      • Strikers within the car industry made Birmingham less attractive to potential investors.
      • 1970s - UK car industry in decline as foreign cars became more popular.
      • Manufacturing indsutries made up from small to medium enterprises were located in inner city areas - many industrial premises which were not affordable.
    • Housing
      • Large scale redevelopment saw 400 tower blocks built.
      • 1945-1970 - 81,000 new dwellings built.
      • Not all high rise and much better than the old slums.
    • Redevelopment
      • Following redevelopment, people were redistributed.
      • Central zone cleared of residential land use.
      • People relocated to estates such as Castle Vale to the NE.
      • People moved to new towns such as Redditch.
      • Flows of commuters from outer areas increased.
    • Green belt
      • National and local governments established a green belt around the city.
      • Increased value of land adjacent to the belt to restrict outward expansion.
    • Demography
      • In-migration from Caribbean, S Asia and Far East. Clustered in areas of cheap housing.
      • Growing service sector supplied low skilled jobs such as cleaners.
      • Great diversity in food and clothing shops.
      • Became a cosmopolitan city - Mosques and Temples built.
      • Relatively youthful population - 38% are under 24, compared to 31% in the UK.
      • People over 65 account for 13% compared to 16% in the UK.

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