samba em preludio - esperanza spalding

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  • SAMBA EM PRELUDIO
    • background information
      • a type of fusion called a bossa nova
      • combines elements of jazz and brazilian samba
      • by Esperanza Spalding, released in 2008
      • originally written in 1962
    • melody
      • two main melodies - v1 and v2, which are then combined after the guitar solo
      • verse 1
        • 8 bar idea which is then repeated with a different ending
        • many phrases use a rising arpeggio
        • melody mostly moves in leaps of a third or a seventh - unusual
        • first or second note of each phrase descends downwards
      • verse 2
        • a 16 bar idea which is repeated but with a different ending
        • use of sequencing
        • unlike verse 1, it is almost completely conjunct
        • like verse 1, there is a jazzy flattened fifth at the end of the first repeat
      • lyrics are in Portuguese
      • melody line goes very low for female vocal - goes down to a low E
      • vocal line covers the range of a minor tenth
      • verse 3 sings melody 1 and plays melody 2
    • structure
      • two main vocal sections (verse 1 and verse 2) plus solos
      • full structure: verse 1, link, verse 2, guitar solo, verse 1 + 2 voice and bass duet, coda (outro)
    • tonality
      • in B minor
      • many Bossa Novas are in minor keys
      • doesn't modulate
    • tempo
      • start is in free time
      • verse 1 has a slow tempo, verse 2 to end has a faster tempo
      • v1 uses lots of rubato - freedom to slow down or speed up expressively
    • instruments
      • female voice, acoustic bass guitar and acoustic guitar
      • acoustic guitar only joins in at verse 2
      • acoustic bass uses double stopping and harmonics
      • in v1 the bass sounds like its playing 2 parts, with bass notes and alternating chords
    • harmony
      • chords influenced by jazz
        • many extended chords eg 7ths and 13ths
      • main chords are mostly tonal and based around I, II, IV and V
      • some diminished and flattened 5ths
      • chord progressions sometimes create a desceding chromatic bass line
      • occasional chromatic chords
    • rhythm and metre
      • almost completely in 4/4
      • lots of syncopated rhythms
      • bass plays complex rhythms
      • the vocal part is quite syncopated with lots of rests, triplets and longer note values started on an off-beat
    • texture
      • homophonic
      • voice and bass duet verse is polyphonic
      • intro is monophonic
      • bass gives the piece a polyphonic feel

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