Salisbury and Balfour 1895-1902

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  • Salisbury 1895-1902 Arthur Balfour 1902-05
    • What were the 3-5 main areas of Social/Domestic policy?
      • Education Act 1902. provided funds for denominational religious instruction in voluntary elementary schools, owned primarily by the Church of England and Roman Catholics. It ended the divide between voluntary schools, which were largely administered by the Church of England, and schools provided and run by elected school boards.
        • G.R. Searle, like nearly all historians, argues the Act was a short-term political disaster for the Conservative Party. However Searle argues it was long-term success. It standardized and upgraded the educational systems of England and Wales, and led to a rapid growth of secondary schools, with over 1,000 opening by 1914, including 349 for girls. The Church schools now had solid financing from local ratepayers and had to meet uniform standards. Eventually, the Anglican schools were nationalized
      • dealt with the right of workers for compensation for personal injury. It replaced the 1880 Employer's Liability Act, which required the injured worker the right to sue the employer and put the burden of proof on the employee. After 1897, injured employees had only to show that they had been injured on the job.
      • Licensing Act 1904. If public house closed with no misconduct then they were compensated from a fund paid into by the brewers themselves. angered both sides, anti drink movement wanted no compensation to be paid. Brewers were annoyed the effectively had to compensate themselves.
    • What were the 3-5 main areas of Foreign policy?
      • Boer War 1899-1902. after initial defeats due to lack of troops and unfamiliar land Buller, retrieved Ladysmith. Roberts captured Bloemfontein Mafeking was relieved and Johannesburg and Pretoria was captured. Boers carried  on using Guerilla tactics with aid from locals. Kitchener destroyed food sources and heavily guarded railways and introduced concentration camps to stop locals helping the Guerillas. led to a peace treaty in 1902.
      • Boxer Rising (1900) Brought Britain and Germany into close co-operation. Boxers, a Chinese nationalist group besieged foreign legations to protest increasing outside intervention in their country. Yangtze agreement. maintain the 'open door' in Chinese trade.
      • Anglo-French Entente Cordiale. 1904. France would give Britain a free hand in Egypt and Sudan. Britain would recognise French interests in Morocco. French give up claim to Newfoundland in exchange for land in Gambia (West Africa)  Limited effects of Russo-Japanese war. This was seen as an anti-German move.
    • What was their policy towards Ireland?
      • Wyndham's Land Purchase Act 1903. allowed loaning of money to tenants who wanted to buy farms of their own.
    • How popular was this ministry?
      • Balfour was  unpopular due to lack of social reform, Taff Vale case which made it almost impossible for TU's to strike. Angered at Kitcheners use of concentration camps in Boer War. Education Act and Licensing Act lost voters support.
    • What were the major reasons for this ministry being elected?
    • What were the major reasons for this ministry ending?
      • Balfour resigned and the Liberals took advantage of a golden opportunity, put aside the differences within the party and put together a strong election campaign resulting in a massive liberal win
    • What were the overriding priorities for this ministry? did they achieve their aims?


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