S1 Mindmap

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  • S1
    • Representing Data
      • Types of Variables
        • Qualitative: A variable that describes a characteristic
        • Quantitative: A variable that can be given a numerical value
          • Discrete: Variables that can only take certain values in a given range (Counted)
          • Continuous: Variables that can take any value in a given range (Measured)
      • Stem and Leaf diagrams
        • Neat columns
        • Arranged in ascending or descending order
        • Draw a key
      • Histograms
        • Continuous data (no gaps)
        • Y axis shows frequency density
        • Area = Frequency
        • FD = F/CW
      • Cumulative Frequency
        • Continuous Data
        • Graph never decreases
        • Maximum graph height = total frequency
    • Probability
      • Sample Space
        • Lists all the possible outcomes of an event, each in a pair of curly brackets
      • Exclusivity
        • Mutually Exclusive
          • Events that CANNOT both happen at the same time
        • Non-mutually Exclusive
          • Events CAN both happen at the same time
          • P(A or B) =   P(A) + P(B) - P(A and B)
      • Dependancy
        • Events that are independent are when the outcome of one event has no effect on the outcome of another
        • Conditional events are when the outcome of one event has an effect on the outcome of another
          • P(B given A) = P(A & B)    / P(A)
    • Summarising Data
      • Measures of Location (Central Tendency)
        • Mean
          • Sum of values / number of values
          • Mid point used if data is grouped
          • Easy to calculate
          • Makes use of all data
          • Can be used in further statistical calculations
          • Can be misleading if there is an abnormally high or low value
        • Median
          • Middle value of an ordered set of data
          • Median =   1/2(n+1)th value
          • Simple to understand
          • Unaffected by abnormally high or low values
          • Sometimes is a member of the data set
          • Cannot be used in further calculations
        • Mode
          • Most common value
          • 2 modes means it is bi-modal
          • Group with highest frequency density is the modal group
          • Simple to understand
          • Unaffected by abnormally high or low values
          • Most useful to producers
          • Cannot be used in further calculations
          • Cannot be determined exactly in grouped frequency distributions
      • Measures of dispersion
        • Range
          • Largest value - smallest value
          • Very limited as it does not consider the pattern of the spread, only the extreme values
        • Interquartile range
          • Calculates the difference between the upper and lower quartile
          • The range of the middle 50% of the distribution
        • Box and Whisker plot
          • Show lowest, highest values, upper, lower quartiles and median

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