Russian national minorities - Finland, Poland, Jews and Ukraine.

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  • Russian national minorities
    • Finland
      • A2 re-established the Diet of Finland, initiated several reforms increasing Finland's autonomy and granted their own currency.
      • Governor-General of Finland, Nikolei Borbrikov, fully integrated it into the empire and Russified it.
      • Finland was granted full autonomy in 1905 but the agreement was quickly reneged upon.
      • A3 started Russifying Finland, even though its loyalty hadn't previously been in doubt.
    • Poland
      • Poland had been under Tsarist rule since 1815 but had retained nominal independence
      • A law conscripting Poles into the Russian Army led to the Polish January Uprising in 1863.
        • The rebellion was largely rural with many landowners supporting the rebels.
        • Took nearly a year to control and wasn't over until August 1864.
      • PG gave Poland independence in March 1917.
      • Tension with Poland after WWI as Polish borders were hard to define. Tension culminated in the Polish-Soviet War in 1920.
        • Lenin pursued this war beyond merely pushing back Poles from their invasion of Ukraine to expand communism to Poland.
        • Red Army soon pushed back and a treaty of Riga signed in April 1921 gave large parts of Belorussia to Poland.
      • Stalin  refused to intervene in the 1944 Warsaw Uprising, allowing Polish to be crushed.
      • Russification continued to be applied under A3.
    • Jews
      • A2 ended the harsh treatment of the Jews.
        • They could migrate beyond the Pale of Settlement.
        • Those having a Russian secondary school education were granted greater rights, increasing Jewish enrollment in Russian schools.
        • HOWEVER Jews couldn't receive the ranks of officers under A2.
      • Between 1850 and 1900, the Jewish population increased substantially, almost doubling to 5m.
        • Jews became more prominent in society, taking on new roles.
      • Under A3, Jews faced the worst treatment.
        • The government encouraged pogroms, with 215 occurring between the 1st outbreaks in May.
          • In response, a militant Zionist movement was founded in 1883.
      • With the advent of WWI, Jews felt they could increase their role in society by participating  in the defence of Russia.
        • Over 400k Jews were mobilised and 80k served in the front lines.
        • This plan failed. When the Russian army failed, anti-Semitic commanders blamed Jews.
      • In March 1917, the PG abolished all restrictions on Jews.
      • Bolsheviks rejected anti-Semitism and loosened civil restrictions on Jews.
        • Jewish youth keenly joined the Red Army.
          • In 1926, Jews made up 4.4% of Red Army officers.
        • HOWEVER Bolsheviks clamped down on zionism.
      • Attempts to persecute the Jews were halted during WWII. They played an important role in Soviet military effort.
        • Suppressing Soviet Jewry resumed afterwards.
          • Until Stalin's death in 1953, Jews were placed in gulags and faced with significant physical oppression, i.e. the Doctors Plot.
      • Khrushchev continued to suppress Judaism and Jewish culture.
    • Ukraine
      • Ukrainians demanded self-government and moderate socialists in the PG made concessions to them.
      • Russification continued to be applied under A3.

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