Russia on the eve of WWI

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  • Russia on the Eve of WWI
    • Bourgeoisie (middle class)
      • Concerned about peasants and lower classes taking power
      • Angry about Duma
      • frustrated about lack of reforms
      • Liberals become more outspoken about the Tsar and the Duma
      • Growing in size, wanting more of a say
      • Making money from growing industry
    • Government
      • Reaping benefits of economic boom
      • Didn't think working class or peasants seemed like a threat
      • Duma had lost all power
      • Government were loyal to the tsar
      • Liberals,more the octoberists, were loyal but beginning to question the tsar
      • 1913 Guchkov (octoberists) criticises the tsar about what he was doing to the govt, promises of 1905 were broken
    • Proletariat (working class)
      • rise in strikes-unhappy
      • Bread and butter issues -low pay and bad living/working conditions
        • Moscow and St Petersburg were overpopulated
      • Strain on resources -food, sanitation and hospitals
      • On verge of revolution
      • July 1914-Strike in St Petersburg supported by Bolsheviks
        • Only supported by Bolsheviks, little support from elsewhere
    • Peasants
      • Stolypins land reforms: modernisation, freedom, more efficient farming..moving forward
      • Grain production rising
      • 1909-13 exceptional harvests
      • Bigger demand for food for growing population- pressure
      • Less peasants as they were moving to become middle class
      • Becoming more assertive in their rights


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