Russia 1914-24: Tsar Nicholas II

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  • Created by: ebough
  • Created on: 08-04-14 15:42
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  • Russia 1914-24: Tsar Nicholas II
    • Why was Russia so hard to govern?
      • Social Problems
        • only nobles had a say in how it was run
        • the class system led to an unfair and unequal governing
      • Type of Government
        • only Russians were appointed officials
        • The size of Russia led to poor links in government
      • Geographic + Ethnic Issues
        • Size of country
        • Nicholas II hated Jews
        • Extreme weather = harvest failures
    • Opposition to the Tsar
      • Liberals
        • Freedom of speech and elections
          • NO chance of dictatorship
        • Anyone can reach power
          • (through manipulation)
      • The Kadets
        • Introduces equal rights and limits power of Tsar
        • Main support from middle-class which is a small group
      • Social Revolutionaries
        • wanted to return the land to who worked on it
          • strongly supported by peasants
        • They reinforced their opinions through violence
      • Mensheviks
        • They supported working class
        • They were willing to work with other groups
        • Wantedto cause turmoil in Russia
          • Revolution
      • Bolsheviks
        • They supported the working class and were very committed and dedicated
          • They didn't need to wait for the middle-class  to revolt
        • A small party with weak leadership in foreign countries
    • Revolution 1905
      • Short term causes
        • workers left hungry
        • war caused shortages of necessities
          • prices for many things rose
        • many working class left unemployed
          • factories were closed due to lack of materials
        • country left humiliated after defeats by Japanese
      • Long term causes
        • dissatisfied with government
        • living & working conditions for peasants and working class were awful
        • to fund industrialisation the government taxed peasants
        • Working class wages  kept low
        • peasants left starving (poor harvests)
        • government forced their opinion through violence
      • Trigger
        • BLOODYSUNDAY
          • Father Gapon decided to organise a march to deliver a petition to the Tsar
            • the petition was asking the tsar for help
          • Around 200,000 people marched towards the palace
          • they were met by troops, who began to shoot people down
      • Why did people join the revolution? (examples)
        • Middle class liberal
          • Politics
            • an elected government, freedom of speech and a right to form political parties
        • Peasant woman
          • More equality
            • Land given back, revenge on the land owners and more money
        • a Pole
          • Freedom
            • independence and quality and freedom of speech
        • Engineering worker
          • things to improve
            • 8 hour day, better working conditions and higher wages
    • Rasputin
      • Tsar & Tsarina
        • Rasputin became largely involved in the war
      • How was he viewed?
        • Many people have mixed views on Rasputin.
          • The majority despise this man and believe he is corrupting the authority in the country
      • HIM
        • He is said to have organised gatherings (orgies)
          • Theses attracted many high society women
        • He was also linked with seduction and affairs with nobles
        • Grigori Rasputin, born in Siberia on 22nd January 1869, is a famous Starets. 
    • The Tsar looses power
      • Effect of War 1914-17
        • On the soldiers
          • Blamed the inefficient and insensitive officers
          • Losses mounted rapidly
            • over 1 million soldiers were killed,  injured or taken prisoner by the end of 1914
          • saw friends, family and comrades brutally slaughtered
          • supplies were running short
            • boots (clothing)
            • weapons and ammunition
        • On the people at home
          • food shortages becoming an increasing problem
            • the little food that there was couldn't reach the cities
              • (railway was being used by the army)
          • Farms left unattended due to the male peasants joining the army
          • Unemployment and poverty began to rise rapidly
          • Industrial materials were short due to the closing of factories
          • Prices of goods began to rise
            • wages barely altered
            • people were cold and hungry
      • Personal control of army
        • Tsar decided to take over the running of the war
          • he went to the front himself
        • he was now named for Russian defeats
        • he left the Tsarina in charge of temporarily running the country
          • many people opposed this decision
            • she was distrusted due to her German background
            • her close link with Rasputin left her in a bad position with the Russian people
      • Loosing support
        • increasing bad new from war
          • people  became impatient and desperate
        • reputation and support of the Tsar and Tsarina began to get worse
          • all classes began to loose support for them
        • the middle-class & higher classes despised the Royal family
          • connection to Rasputin
        • people blamed him for shortages and collapsing of the country
      • Revolution
        • By 1917 the situation was much worse
          • serious mood of discontent
        • the workers wanted political changes, food & food
        • 40,000 workers went on strike for higher wages
          • Women and others joined in
          • they also demanded food, fuel, better conditions and a new government
        • the Tsar used force to silence them
      • Army taking sides
        • were ordered to shoot strikers
          • they refused
        • they joined in the strike and some shot their officers
      • Abdication
        • 15th March 1917
        • railway workers refused to let his train into Petrograd
        • in favour of his brother Michael

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