Russian History. Theme 3 - Control

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  • Created on: 06-04-18 13:58
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  • Russia History: Theme 3 - Control
    • Mass Media & Propaganda
      • Newspapers
        • Press Freedom
          • November 1917 - All non-socialist newspapers banned.
          • By 1920 all non-Bolshevik newspapers were banned
          • Printing Press nationalised
          • All editors and journalists employed by the government
        • Daily newspapers
          • Pravda (Truth)
            • Newspaper of the CP
            • Circulation of 10.7 million by 1983
          • Izvestiya (News)
            • Newspaper of the Government
            • Cheap to buy and widely available, acting as an instrument of propaganda, agitation and organisation
              • Pravda (Truth)
                • Newspaper of the CP
                • Circulation of 10.7 million by 1983
        • Newspaper topics
          • Carried details about soviet achievement
          • Production figures about economic plans exceeding their targets
          • Prohibited topics like plane crashes and natural disasters
      • Radio
        • Development
          • By 1922 Moscow had a well developed radio station
          • Loudspeakers installed in factories, public places and clubs
          • Spoken Newspaper of the Russian Telegraph Agency
            • Featured news and propaganda material
          • New apartment blocks wired for radio reception
        • Radio Stations
          • Until 1964 there was only 1 radio station
          • Under Brezhnev, this was extended to 3
            • Radio Maiak (Lighthouse) played foreign music, popular with the youth
          • Tried to restrict access to foreign stations by mass producing cheap radios with weak reception
      • Television
        • Development
          • In 1950, the USSR at 10,000 sets
          • By 1958 the number of TV's were over 3 million
          • By the early 1980's. most of the rural population had a TV
        • Channels
          • Mix of news, documentaries on the achievements of socialism, and cultural programmes
          • Presented life under Socialism as joyous, and life under Capitalism as poor
          • By 1985 there were two channels with a greater focus on entertainment
    • Cult of Personality
      • Stalin
        • Imagery
          • Presented as an all-present all-knowing leader
          • Defender of Socialism
          • Stalin in military uniform during WW2
        • Titles and sayings
          • Presented as Lenin's closest colleague - 'Stalin is the Lenin of today'
          • Tsaristyn renamed Stalingrad in 1925
          • Titles such as 'Brilliant Genius of Humanity' and 'Gardener of Human Happiness'
        • Texts
          • Records of speeches produced and distrubuted
          • Poems like 'Song about Stalin' by M. Izakovosky
        • Helped to reinforce his personal dictatorship
      • Khrushchev
        • Originally criticised Stalin;s use of a personality cult in his 1956 Secret Speech
        • Representation
          • Allowed him to be seen as an important party figure
          • Suited his stlye of leadership, which involved him meeting Soviet citizens
          • Visits on Peasant farms were photo oppertunities
      • Brezhnev
        • Brezhnev's cult was more of a substitute for power, than a method for securing power
        • Gave him symbols of power without having to excersise it
        • Awards
          • Brezhnev was awarded around 100 awards
          • Untitled
      • Lenin
        • After Death
          • After his burial he was hailed as a hero of the revolution
          • Newspapers, statues and cinemas featured many images of Lenin
          • His body was on display in the mausoleum in Red Square
    • Religion
      • Russian Orthodox Church
        • Ideology
          • To the Bolsheviks, the Church provided an alternative ideology to that of Marxism
          • It was seen as a threat to Socialist ideology
          • Rights of individuals contrasted to the socialist collective mentality
          • Power of the church posed a threat to socialist values and government control
        • Measures to limit control
          • 1918 Decree on Freedom of Conscious - separated Church from the state, losing its status. Deprived them of land and publications
          • Churches destroyed or converted
          • League of Militant Godless established in 1929 as a Propaganda campaign against religion
          • Campaign to replace Baptism with 'Octoberings'
      • Religion under Stalin
        • Before German Invasion
          • Priests labelled as kulaks and deported
          • Further attacks on the church during the Great Purge
          • By 1939 only 12/163 bishops were still at liberty
        • After German Invasion
          • Due to their support during WW2, Stalin took a more liberal approach to the church
          • Patriarchate was re-established
          • Several churches reopened
          • New seminaries were set up to train priests
      • Religion under Krushchev
        • Very anti-religious - pursued a programme of repression
        • 1958 Anti-religious campaign
          • Role of priest limited to spirutual advice only
          • Parish councils placed under Party control
          • 10,000 churches closed within 4 years
      • Religion under Brezhnev
        • Saw the damage of religious persecution did to their reputation, and so was happy to let them to act within its defined limits
        • Council of Religious Affairs
          • monitored religious services so they stayed loyal to socialism
        • Expected t ostick to formal church services and support Soviet policies
    • Secret Police
      • Yagoda: 1934-36
        • Expansion of the Gulag
          • Transformed into a vast system of forced labour to support industrialisation
          • Camps to exploit economic resources
          • Labour camps positioned in hostile environments
          • Completion of the White Sea Canal used 180,000 gulag labourers
        • Secret Police
          • Used his influence with Stalin to deal with opponents without notice from regular courts
          • Arrested those within the Party who were accused of Trotsykite opposition
          • He was eventually recriminated himself, removed from office and then shot in 1938
      • Yezhov: 1936-38
        • NKVD went under most execssive stage of purging
        • Gulag
          • Issued orders in 1937 that camps need to meet quotas for the execution of presioners
          • Prisoners rose highly
        • Secret Police
          • Process of arrest, trial and imprisonment was sped up
          • Group of people considered opponents widened to anyone who weren't committed to the revolution
          • Accused of bieng responsible for the ecessive purges and was removed from office
          • Surveillance of the public increased - system of informers and plain-clothes police officers were used
      • Beria: 1938-53
        • Secret Police
          • Saw indiscriminate arrests wer einefficient
          • Reintroduced more conventional methods - trials were only held were evidence was available
          • Surveillance continued, but only led to arrests if there was evidence
        • Gulag
          • Wanted to make it a profitable part of the economy
          • Food rations improve to make prisoners more productive
          • Early releases were cancelled so that prisoners expertise could be continued to be used
          • Contribution to the economy rose from 2 billion roubles in 1937 to 4.5 billion roubles in 1940
      • Responsibility for Terror
        • Stalin
          • Signed many death warrants
          • Gave the NKVD quotas
          • Essential part of Stalins policies
          • Reflceted Stalin's paranoid personality
        • Secret Police
          • The leaders all owe their position to Stalin, and had sadistic tendencies, adding names to the list
          • Infleunce over the implementation of terror and the operation of the gulag
    • Dissidents and Disconent
      • Types of dissidents
        • Intellectuals
          • Those who have high status, which has encouraged them to develop independent ideas
          • e.g. Andrei Sakharov, nuclear scientist
        • Political Dissidents
          • Those who tried to hold the government to the account of its own laws
        • Nationalists
          • Groups of Ukraniuans, Latvians, Lithanians and Georgians who have called for greater status for their culture, languag etc
        • Religious Dissidents
          • Baptists and Catholics who faced restricitons
          • e.e. group of Jews called Refuseniks - denied to visit Israel
      • Action and Impact of the Dissidents
        • Actions taken
          • Surveillance and harassment against suspected dissidents
          • Use of psychiatric hospitals run by the NKVD
          • Internal exile
          • Intellectuals threatened with expulsion from their organisation
          • Houses searched and items confiscated
        • Impact
          • Court cases created bad publicity, which tarnished their reputation
          • The dissidents had little suport from the general public, and they never threatened the social and political stability
          • They struggled to organise public demonstrations
          • By 1970's Andropovs measures had succeeded in keeping them small and divided
      • Continued monitering of discontent
        • Clamp down on alcohilsm and absanteeism in the workplace
        • Spot checks on factory workers
        • Andarpov visited factories himself
        • Appointment of new government ministers to tap into public concerns
        • Promotion of younger, reformist generation, which included Gorbachev
    • Cutlure and Arts
      • Prolekult, avant-garde and Socialist Realism
        • Bolshevik attitudes
          • Culture was vital but subordinate to class conflict
          • Commissariat of Enlightenment set up in 1917 to support and encourage artists
        • Prolekult
          • Promoted by Bogdanov, who thought there should be a Proletarian culture, top serve a social and political purpose
          • Wokeres and peasants encouraged to produce their own culture
          • Constructivists - aimed to create a new socialist culture to challenge high culture
          • Magazine 'Smithy' was produced, which had poems about machines and factories
        • Avant-Garde
          • Wave of experimentation to sweep away the old world
          • Coupled with Futurism to picture images of the future
          • Mayakosky produced slogans and posters for the government
          • Eisenstein led the wave of experimentation in cinema, with movies like Strike in 1924
        • Socialist Realism
          • Art that presented idealised images of life under Socialism, to inspire the population
          • Headed by the Union of Soviet Writers
          • Art projected images of life under the Five Year Plans
          • Literature emphasised on the heroes connected to the party
          • Stalinist baroque architecture (wedding cake)
      • Noncomformity in the 50's
        • Stalin's last years
          • Despite signs of liberalisation, western culture was condemned
          • Campaign launched in 1946 to remove aspects of bourgeois culture from the west
        • Impact of Destalinisation
          • Allowed works to be published that had previously been banned e.g. works by Isaac Babel
          • Writers began to explore themes like adultery and divorce, going against Socialist Realism
          • Soviet youth became influenced by music from the west
        • Under Brezhnev
          • Narrowed the boundaries of what was acceptable after Khrushchevs cultural thaw
          • Culture conntinued with propaganda on the achievements of socialism
          • Culture had become more conservative by the 70's
          • Youth continued to be influenced by the west
      • Clashes with Government
        • Khrushchev
          • Abstract art was disliked by Khrushchev, as shown in 1962 when he visited an exhibition hall
          • Komsomol groups were instructed to patrol streets to report on the youth who's behavour was unacceptable
          • Became less tolerant of nonconformity near the end of his tenure
        • Control and further clampdown
          • Those who served the interests of the state were rewarded
          • Those who strayed away from what was acceptable were visited from government officials

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