Russia 1917-24

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  • Russia 1917-1924
    • The Red Terror
      • peasants arrested - not giving up grain
      • labour and concentration camps
      • Show trials to condemn SR
      • scared hostile groups
      • executed the Tsar and family
      • Arrested peasants, SR, anarchists, political groups, intelligentsia
      • torture and killing as retaliation for attempted assassination of Lenin
      • Mass executions of Bol. enemies =10-15,000
      • Attacks
        • Church- arrested priests and stripped churches of belongings
        • Political rivals- SR became more popular (Bols. used this as excuse to arrest 5000 Mensheviks in 1921)
    • War Communism
      • Grain requisition from peasants- Cheka confiscated
      • State control of factories
        • Nationalisation
        • Through Supreme Council of National Economy 1917
      • Rationing -dependent on class system
        • soldiers
        • urban workers
        • peasants
        • middle & upper class
      • Nationalism of industry- no private trade
      • Vensenka- to control military style in factories
      • Hierarchical structures in industry
      • Private trade banned
      • Why was this introduced?
        • The ideological basis
        • The response to the reality of economic collapse
        • The reaction to early Bolshevik excesses
      • 1918-21
    • NEP
      • 1921-28
      • Peasants pay tax in grain- encouraged them to produce more
      • Some private trade - Nepman
      • Govt. still control leading height of economy - coal, iron
      • Reintroduction of economy
      • Why was this introduced?
        • Economic considerations- By the end of the war, industry had ground to a virtual standstill
        • The unpopularity of War Communism
        • The Tambov Rising - Peasant resentment against the Govt. came to a head in series of uprisings in 1920-21
        • The Kronstadt Mutiny - revolt be sailors at the naval base outside Petrograd increased pressure on the Govt
    • Opposition
      • Kronstadt Sailors- Crushed by Red Army and Cheka
      • Worker's Opposition Group - dissolved after 1921 Party Congress
      • Peasants uprising - Crushed by Red Army and Cheka
    • Civil War
      • Trotsky brought back thousands of former tsarist officers to train and command army units
        • The Kornilov Affair
      • Why did the Red's win?
        • Unity- unified command structure
        • Support: peasants support Bols. as prominsed land, whites reluctant to give land
        • Leadership: Trotsky- personally brave, inspired army, brought back death sentence, re-organisation.
        • Geography- Railways, factories, population, communication
        • Other reasons- poles, GB, Fr, USA,  and Japan helped whites (foreign invasion)
      • Why did the war break out?
        • Social Revs were angry because Lenin had closed the Assembley
        • Enemies- SR's, supporters for the Provisional Govt, supporters of the Tsar, army officers, nobles, the Czech Legion, Brian, USA and France.
      • 1918-1920


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