institutional developments: royal councils

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  • royal councils
    • privy council
      • henry vii
        • 227 men attended council but few regulars
        • church was principal advisers
      • henry viii
        • added more nobles but clerics still had important posts
        • membership came to reflect factions in his marriages e.g. Parr, Boleyn, Seymour
        • 30 to 40 members under edward/mary
      • elizabeth i
        • fell to 5/6 doing most work
        • freq increased to everyday by 1603
        • dependence on Secretary of State (Cecil etc.) ensured survival as vital office
    • council of wales
      • 1536-43, 12 new welsh counties and extended authority to 5 english counties
        • given english administrative and judicial system and elected MPs
      • crown held most land
      • welsh lords accepted reforms under henry viii
        • gentry keen to become JPs and enhance own positions
        • no rebellions
    • council of the north
      • 2x remodelled 1525-30
        • given judicial functions 1537
      • took orders from privy council
        • council of wales
          • 1536-43, 12 new welsh counties and extended authority to 5 english counties
            • given english administrative and judicial system and elected MPs
          • crown held most land
          • welsh lords accepted reforms under henry viii
            • gentry keen to become JPs and enhance own positions
            • no rebellions
      • henry viii let nobles assume wardenship of marches to control 'wild ppl'
        • elizabeth appointed more southern nobles to assist council maintaining stability
      • authority increased after 1569  revolt (no rebellions after)
    • tudors governed kingdom through councils (became Privy Council 1530)
      • aimed to transmit monarch's wishes into actions and ensure country was effectively governed
      • est. regional councils e.g. Welsh, North
      • based in London

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