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    • ROME
        • THE OPPIAN LAW, LIVY 215BC
          • THE OPPIAN LAW TERMS  - limited the amount of gold and silver women could own to half an ounce  - forbid women to wear purple    - forbid women to ride in carriages within half a mile of Rome
          • CATO'S ARGUMENT - AGAINST REPEAL        - women are talking to other men's husbands      - ashamed to see women in the streets (had never happened before)          - fear that women will become superior         - luxury leads women to sexual depravity
          • LUCIUS VALERIUS' ARGUMENT - FOR REPEAL       - says that women are doing nothing new = references Cato's own book The Origines for proof             - Women's positive influence = the Sabine Women, Punic Wars, Idaeus Mother, the Gauls            - Law is no longer needed = was an emergency    - Men treat horses better than wives      - Women will see foreigners wearing forbidden luxuries         - Women will never become superior         - Luxuries are the only things women are interested in
          • IT IS NOT GOOD FOR WOMEN TO BE POLITICALLY INVOLVED = Sempronia was a supporter of Catiline who led a conspiracy, but only to pay off debts
          • OPPOSITE OF A GOOD MATRONA       - Too much masculinity in her boldness   - From noble birth = more of a shame      - Intelligent, poses threat = literature, musically talented, too seductive in her dancing     - Corrupted by luxury          - Accessory to murder
        • CLODIA, CICERO 56BC
          • CICERO AND VIEWS ON WOMEN          - Clodia's good birth but bad reputation (Sempronia)    - What he says is okay because she's slanderous      - Incestual relationship with brother     - She scemes/tricks   - Too quick to drag things into court - women who are politically involved are bad (Juvenal)         - Affairs and sexual depravity
          • VOICE OF APPIUS CAECUS - CLODIA'S GRANDFATHER                - Honour of family being destroyed = grandfather and husband's      - Talks of dishonour to  Vestral Virgin called Quinta Claudia
          • VOICE OF CAECUS - CLODIA'S BROTHER      - She's too quick to prosecute, only as Caelius rejected her     - Makes reference to affairs and their incestual relationship
          • WOMEN SHOULD BE POLITICALLY INVOLVED = famous for her sons Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus who incited the poor to rebel against the patricians, writes to them and tells them not to carry on
          • SHOWS PUDICTIA = does not cry over sons or change her way of life after they die
          • OTHER QUALITIES OF A MATRONA     - Educated and intelligent    - Good birth    - Loyal to husband = MATER FAMILIAS, ran the household and didn't remarry          - Husband died instead of her = valued
          • MALE IDEAS ON AN IDEAL WOMAN        - Obedient     - Good at weaving/wool  - Modest       - Alike to all other women
          • IMPORTANCE OF CHILDREN AND REMARRIAGE                  - she was obedient in her arranged marriages       - Fairness to children = ensured first son got equal heir status and inheritance from father
          • TYPICAL DOMESTIC SKILLS            - Loyal            - Obedient      - Worked wool                - Not over religious or superstituous
          • TRAITS THAT WERE UNIQUE AND PRAISED        - Political = avenged parents in court, proved they hadn't been in the wrong kind of marriage and ensured her sister got her inheritance      - Chaste = moved to mother in laws when husband was away               - has joint custody of the property         - sent husband money, servants, provisions, gold and silver and protested on his behalf    - Political again = got beaten by Lepidus yet carried on protesting       - defended house from Milo                 - when infertile, offered to find the husband a new wife and act as mother in law and sister in law to her and new child
          • Husband loved her very much = would rather have died instead of her
          • Mentions Augustus a great deal, often with the word clemency
        • PLINY LETTERS 104-108AD
          • LETTERS TO AUNT             - Wife is worthy of her family               - She is intelligent and frugal (reads and re-reads his books, sits behind a curtain and soaks up the praise)             - She loves him for his glory
          • LETTERS TO WIFE               - Control in a marriage ("I would like to see with my own eyes" fears women will commit affairs, tells her to write to him two/three times a day)             - She hugs his books to comfort herself             -Expresses love, albeit in a forced/strange way                 - Goes to her room accidentally as he misses her
          • LETTER TO GRANDFATHER                   - Blames her for miscarriage as she was 'young and inexperienced' - Good than she can conveive = the importance of children, the shared honour they will have when born
          • ON THE DEATH OF MINICIA MARCELLA    - Wise = came to terms with death       - Showed Pudictia           - Educated and obedient   - Due to be married = importance of family               - ALIKE TO HER FATHER COMPLETEY IN APPEARANCE AND BEHAVIOUR = really praising him
          • ON ARRIA        - Shows Pudictia - hides emotion at sons death and doesn't tell ill husband, organises funeral herself  - Bravery = when husband taken away, follows in a fishing boat      - Shows stoic intention to die = bangs head against wall     - Loyalty = commits suicide
          • ON FANNIA      - Heroism = becomes ill after looking after a Vestral Virgin               - Spirit worthy of husband and father       - Chastity, sanctity and dignity              - Exiled due to being politically involved = didn't deny the book on husband being written and took it into exile
        • JUVENAL ON WOMEN 200AD
          • ON EPPIA       - Leaves and disgraces noble family    - Women willing to endure bad things to have an affair         - Sex and fame addicts - loves his 'sword'
          • ON MESSALINA, THE EMPEROR CLAUDIUS' WIFE           - Example for all women, fear of corruption       - Addicted to sex as Lycias, 'took thrusts from all corners'     - Very exaggeration descriptions of her body after sex = Claudius could justify killing her       - Bringing corruption back to marriage bed = could corrupt emperor
          • ON WOMEN AS WHOLE    - Hates mother in laws = encourage wives to steal off husbands, to write their letters back (affairs) and distract the doctor (affairs)          - Women too willing to prosecute       - Grammar correctors      - Read literature and praise the wrong poem   - Women getting involved in athletics are unattractive   - Life is easier for women     - Luxury has corrupted women         - Love doesn't exist as women are too drunk      - Could have foreigner's baby             - Men have become less manly           - Interested in Philosophy but won't live the life           - Rich women will kill your child
    • The Vestral Virgins, Plutarch 700BC - Present
      • A VESTRAL VIRGIN'S SPECIAL POWERS/RIGHTS              - could make a will (in charge of own property)          - given bodyguards with fasces of the lictors to protect them    - if they met a criminal his life was spared             - if anyone went under their litter they were put to death
      • SUFFERINGS AND PUNISHMENTS                    - had to serve thirty years and continually guard the flame in the temple of Vesta               - minor offences received a beating by the Pontifex Maximus          - a seduced virgin was buried alive
    • THE RAPE OF THE SABINE WOMEN, LIVY 700-500BC (set) 100BC (Written)
      • THE IMPORTANCE OF MARRIAGE    - Romulus visits                - Offers of marital rights/citizenship                    - 'All good marriages start with an offence'            - Husbands would treat them with extra kindness          - Was due to love and passion
      • BIASED SOURCE        - Augustus wanted Rome to always be shown in a good light         - Presented as an example to the now 'corrupt' women of Rome
    • Cloelia, Livy 700-500BC (set) 100BC (written)
      • OTHER QUALITIES THAT WERE VALUED IN MATRONAS   - Bravery = swam the Tiber, saves other hostages          - Intelligence = chooses male hostages  - Influenced history = had the equestrian statue built in her honour
    • Lucretia, Livy 700-500BC (set) 100BC (written)
      • VALUES MATRONAS BEING INVOLVED IN POLITICS = her suicide as a result of her rape by Sextus Tarquinias led Brutus to bring down the Kings - led to the Republic
      • CHASTITY AND HONOUR IDEAL              - kills herself so honour is not questioned  - Sextus wants her due to her obedient nature - weaving by candlelight when they visit her and she invites them to dine


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