Role of Reagan- end of the Cold War

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  • Role of Reagan
    • Seeking Co-operation 1983-1987
      • Aims
        • 1) Reduce risk of nuclear war 'abolition of all weapons'
        • 2) Better working relations with the Kremlin
        • 3) Collaboration in regional conflicts
      • Changing rhetoric
        • Jan 16th 1984- "Our challenge is  peaceful. We do not threaten the Soviet Union."
        • "realistic re-engagement"
        • "co-operation and understanding"
      • 1983 War scare and tensions
        • McFarlane's view- Operation Archer (rehearsed attack that looked like real threat) NSA say this is what made him change policy
      • Shared vision with Gorbachev
        • Reykjyavik 1986
          • realise they both have common aim to eliminate nuclear weapons and reject MAD theory
          • "watershed moment" - Gorbachev
          • INF treaty 1987- Gorbachev included Oka rockets despite being outside of 500-5000 km range they agreed on
            • Encouraged  his policies such as withdrawing from Afghanistan and abandoning the Brezhenv Doctrine
        • Zero sum thinking gone and believed dialogue was crucial
      • Pressure from Europe
        • Ostpolitik- want trade and better living standards
    • The Hardline Years 1981-1983
      • Reagan Doctrine
        • provide support to anti-communist freedom fighters (Mujahdeen) in battle in Afghanistan
        • This made war in Afghanistan unpopular and weakened support from the public.
        • Decreased soviet financial resources and political legitimacy.
        • Weakened international support for the  soviets.
      • Aims
        • 1) weaken position of USSR
        • 2) Restrict trade with the USSR
        • 3) Increase US defence spending
      • Trade restrictions
        • Dec 1981- access to energy exploration and technology restricted
        • June 1982- extended to oil and gas data
          • Weakened Soviet economy and increased lack of confidence of Soviet leadership
            • Dec 1981- access to energy exploration and technology restricted


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