Unit 1A - Rocks and Landscapes

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  • Rocks and Landscapes
    • Granite Landscapes
      • Granite has lots of joints which aren't evenly spread
        • Freeze-thaw and chemical weathering wear down the parts of the rock with lots of joints faster because there are more cracks for the water to get into
          • Parts of the granite that have fewer joints are weathered more slowly than the surrounding rock and stick out at the surface forming tors
            • Granite is also impermeable
              • This creates moorlands
              • It doesn't let water through
    • Chalk and Clay Landscapes
      • Horizontal layers of chalk and clay are sometimes tilted diagonally by the Earth's movement
        • The clay is less resistant than the chalk
          • The chalk is left sticking out forming escarpments. Where the clay has been eroded it forms vales
            • Escarpments have steep slopes (Scarp slopes) and gentle slopes (Dip slopes)
              • Chalk is an aquifer
                • A permeable rock that stores water
                • Water flows through chalk and emerges where the chalk meets impermeable rock
                  • Called a spring line
                  • Areas of chalk can also have dry valleys
    • Carboniferous limestone forms surface and underground features
      • Surface
        • Limestone Pavements
        • Swallow Holes
        • Limestone Gorge
      • Underground
        • Caverns
        • Stalactites
        • Stalagmites
        • Pillar

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