Rocks and building materials

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  • Rocks and building materials
    • Limestone and its uses
      • Limestone is made mainly of calcium carbonate
      • Limestone is used as a buildining material and to make calcium oxide and cement
      • Cement mixed with sand, aggregate and water makes concrete
      • Calcium carbonate decomposes when heated to make calcium oxide and carbon dioixide
    • Reactions of carbonates
      • Metal carbonates decompse when heated to produce the metal oxide and carbon dioxide
      • Carbonates react with acids to producce a salt, water and carbon dioxide
      • Carbon dioxide turns limewater cloudy
    • The `limestone reaction cycle`
      • Thermal decomposition of calcium carbonate produces calcium oxide and carbon dioxide
      • Calcium oxide reacts with water to produce calcium hydroxide
      • Calcium hydroxide is an alkali that can be used to neutralise acids
      • Calcium hydroxide reacts with carbon dioxide to produce calcium carbonate
    • Cement and concrete
      • Cement is made by heating limestone with clay in a kiln
      • Mortar is made by mixing cement and sand with water
      • Concrete is made by mixing aggregate with cement, sand and water
    • Limestone issues
      • There are good and bad points about quarrying for limestone
      • Limestone, cement and concrete are needed as building materials
      • Quarrying and processing limestone and its products have negative impacts on the enviroment


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