Rocks and Building Materials

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  • Rocks and Building Materials
    • What is limestone mostly made of?
      • Calcium carbonate
    • Give three uses of limestone:
      • Making concrete, making cement, building using limestone blocks.
    • How is cement made?
      • limestone heated with clay, Portland cement uses limestone, cement and other mineral, they are heated and ground into a powder.
    • How is concrete made?
      • Crushed rocks are added to water, cement and sand, it's very strong.
    • What is the chemical formula for calcium carbonate?
      • CaCOv3
    • What happens when you heat limestone? Give the equation and uses of products: What is the type of reaction?
      • Decomposes to quicklime (calcium oxide) and carbon dioxide. Called thermal decomposition.
    • Describe the test for carbon dioxide, what is the equation?
      • Carbon dioxide COv2 + limewater Ca(OH)v2 --> Calcium carbonate CaCOv3 + Water Hv2O
    • How does are rotary kiln work? What are the advantages of using one?
      • Limestone is added at one end, and hot air goes in the other. Kiln rotates, and limestone gets heated as it travels down. waste gases release above limestone entrance, product (calcium oxide, quicklime) gathered at other end.
    • What is the equation for when a carbonate reacts with an acid?
      • CaCOv3+HCl-->CaClv3+Hv2O+COv2
    • What happens when you heat a metal carbonate? What is the equation?
      • It thermally decomposes to produce metal oxide and carbon dioxide. Metal carbonate+heat --> metal oxide + carbon dioxide.
    • Describe the limestone reaction cycle:
      • Calcium carbonate, heated, carbon dioxide is lost and calcium oxide is made. Water added, and calcium hydroxide is made. More water added, filter, and limewater (Calcium hydroxide) solution is made. Add carbon dioxide and calcium carbonate is made.
    • What is calcium hydroxide used for?
      • Its an an alkaline, used for neutralizing acid, produces calcium salt and water. used by farmers to neutralize soil, neutralize acidic waste gases in industry before release.
    • How is mortar made and how does it work? what is the equation?
      • lime mortar is slaked lime, calcium hydroxide. CaCOv3+Hv2O-->Ca(OH)v2. Romans added sand also. Modern motar contains cement instead of calcium hydroxide.
    • How is limestone quarried? What are the advantages and disadvantages?
      • Blasted out with explosives, taken in lorries to be processed. Dis. blasting sounds disturb wildlife and residents, landscape scarred, crater formed. Adv. Crater filled with water, reservoir used for leisure, or used as landfill and replanted.
    • What materials are used to reinforce concrete? Why is it good?
      • Glass fibres, carbon fibres, steel rods, polypropylene, nylon, polyesters and Kevlar.


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